Sequential Kalman filter for fast online changepoint detection in longitudinal health records

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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This article introduces the sequential Kalman filter, a computationally scalable approach for online changepoint detection with temporally correlated data. The temporal correlation was not considered in the Bayesian online changepoint detection approach due to the large computational cost. Motivated by detecting COVID-19 infections for dialysis patients from massive longitudinal health records with a large number of covariates, we develop a scalable approach to detect multiple changepoints from correlated data by sequentially stitching Kalman filters of subsequences to compute the joint distribution of the observations, which has linear computational complexity with respect to the number of observations between the last detected changepoint and the current observation at each time point, without approximating the likelihood function. Compared to other online changepoint detection methods, simulated experiments show that our approach is more precise in detecting single or multiple changes in mean, variance, or correlation for temporally correlated data. Furthermore, we propose a new way to integrate classification and changepoint detection approaches that improve the detection delay and accuracy for detecting COVID-19 infection compared to other alternatives.
online changepoint detection,sequential kalman filter,longitudinal health records,kalman filter
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