Coffee consumption and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older adults: should we consider cognitive function?

Frontiers in Nutrition(2023)

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Abstract
BackgroundThe association between coffee and mortality risk has been found in most previous studies, and recent studies have found an association between coffee consumption and cognition. However, there is still a lack of research exploring whether the association between coffee and mortality is influenced by cognitive function.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to explore the association of coffee, caffeine intake in coffee and decaffeinated coffee with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in older adults with different cognitive performances.MethodsThe study was based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. Coffee and caffeine consumption data were obtained from two 24-h dietary recalls. Individual cognitive functions were assessed by CERAD-word learning test (CERAD-WLT), animal fluency test (AFT), and digit symbol substitution test (DSST). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the above test scores to create global cognitive score. The lowest quartile of scores was used to classify cognitive performance. Cox regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) were applied to assess the relationship between coffee and caffeine consumption and mortality.ResultsIn the joint effects analysis, we found that those with cognitive impairment and who reported without drinking coffee had the highest risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with others. In the analysis of population with cognitive impairment, for all-cause mortality, those who showed cognitive impairment in the AFT displayed a significant negative association between their total coffee consumption and mortality {T3 (HR [95% CI]), 0.495 [0.291-0.840], p = 0.021 (trend analysis)}. For DSST and global cognition, similar results were observed. Whereas for CERAD-WLT, restricted cubic spline (RCS) showed a "U-shaped" association between coffee consumption and mortality. For CVD mortality, a significant negative trend in coffee consumption and death was observed only in people with cognitive impairment in AFT or DSST. In addition, we observed that decaffeinated coffee was associated with reduced mortality in people with cognitive impairment.ConclusionOur study suggested that the association between coffee consumption and mortality is influenced by cognition and varies with cognitive impairment in different cognitive domains.
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Key words
coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, cognition, cardiovascular disease, survival
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