BN-LSTM-based energy consumption modeling approach for an industrial robot manipulator.

Robotics Comput. Integr. Manuf.(2024)

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Industrial robots (IRs) are widely used to increase productivity and efficiency in manufacturing industries. Therefore, it is critical to reduce the energy consumption of IRs to maximize their use in polishing, assembly, welding, and handling tasks. This study adopted a data-driven modeling approach using a batch-normalized long short-term memory (BN-LSTM) network to construct a robust energy-consumption prediction model for IRs. The adopted method applies batch normalization (BN) to the input-to-hidden transition to allow faster convergence of the model. We compared the prediction accuracy with that of the 1D-ResNet14 model in a UR (UR3e and UR10e) public database. The adopted model achieved a root mean square (RMS) error of 2.82 W compared with the error of 6.52 W achieved by 1D-ResNet14 model prediction, indicating a performance improvement of 56.74%. We also compared the prediction accuracy over the UR3e dataset using machine learning and deep learning models, such as regression trees, linear regression, ensemble trees, support vector regression, multilayer perceptron, and convolutional neural network-gated recurrent unit. Furthermore, the layers of the well-trained UR3e power model were transferred to the UR10e cobot to construct a rapid power model with 80% reduced UR10e datasets. This transfer learning approach showed an RMS error of 3.67 W, outperforming the 1D-ResNet14 model (RMS error: 4.78 W). Finally, the BN-LSTM model was validated using unseen test datasets from the Yaskawa polishing motion task, with an average prediction accuracy of 99%.
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