Mechanistic Insights into Alternative Gene Splicing in Oxidative Stress and Tissue Injury


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Significance: Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are inducers of tissue injury. Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential regulatory step for diversifying the eukaryotic proteome. Human diseases link AS to OS; however, the underlying mechanisms must be better understood.Recent Advances: Genome-wide profiling studies identify new differentially expressed genes induced by OS-dependent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Overexpression of RNA-binding protein RBFOX1 protects against inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha directs polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 to regulate mouse carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (Ceacam1) AS under OS conditions. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L variant 1 contains an RGG/RG motif that coordinates with transcription factors to influence human CEACAM1 AS. Hypoxia intervention involving short interfering RNAs directed to long-noncoding RNA 260 polarizes M2 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and alleviates OS by inhibiting IL-28RA gene AS.Critical Issues: Protective mechanisms that eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for resolving imbalances that lead to chronic inflammation. Defects in AS can cause ROS generation, cell death regulation, and the activation of innate and adaptive immune factors. We propose that AS pathways link redox regulation to the activation or suppression of the inflammatory response during cellular stress.Future Directions: Emergent studies using molecule-mediated RNA splicing are being conducted to exploit the immunogenicity of AS protein products. Deciphering the mechanisms that connect misspliced OS and pathologies should remain a priority. Controlled release of RNA directly into cells with clinical applications is needed as the demand for innovative nucleic acid delivery systems continues to be demonstrated.
alternative splicing,CEACAM1,exons,ischemia/reperfusion injury,RNA-binding proteins,spliceosome
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