Data is often loadable in short depth: Quantum circuits from tensor networks for finance, images, fluids, and proteins

Raghav Jumade,Nicolas PD Sawaya


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Though there has been substantial progress in developing quantum algorithms to study classical datasets, the cost of simply loading classical data is an obstacle to quantum advantage. When the amplitude encoding is used, loading an arbitrary classical vector requires up to exponential circuit depths with respect to the number of qubits. Here, we address this ``input problem'' with two contributions. First, we introduce a circuit compilation method based on tensor network (TN) theory. Our method -- AMLET (Automatic Multi-layer Loader Exploiting TNs) -- proceeds via careful construction of a specific TN topology and can be tailored to arbitrary circuit depths. Second, we perform numerical experiments on real-world classical data from four distinct areas: finance, images, fluid mechanics, and proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the broadest numerical analysis to date of loading classical data into a quantum computer. Consistent with other recent work in this area, the required circuit depths are often several orders of magnitude lower than the exponentially-scaling general loading algorithm would require. Besides introducing a more efficient loading algorithm, this work demonstrates that many classical datasets are loadable in depths that are much shorter than previously expected, which has positive implications for speeding up classical workloads on quantum computers.
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Key words
quantum circuits,tensor,networks,proteins,data
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