Noncoding RNAs in tumorigenesis and tumor therapy

Fundamental Research(2023)

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Tumorigenesis is a complicated process in which numerous modulators are involved in different ways. Previous studies have focused primarily on tumor-associated protein-coding genes such as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, as well as their associated oncogenic pathways. However, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), rising stars in diverse physiological and pathological processes, have recently emerged as additional modulators in tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on two typical kinds of ncRNAs: long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). We describe the molecular patterns of ncRNAs and focus on the roles of ncRNAs in cancer stem cells (CSCs), tumor cells, and tumor environmental cells. CSCs are a small subset of tumor cells and are generally considered to be cells that initiate tumorigenesis, and dozens of ncRNAs have been defined as critical modulators in CSC maintenance and oncogenesis. Moreover, ncRNAs are widely involved in oncogenetic processes, including sustaining proliferation, resisting cell death, genome instability, metabolic disorders, immune escape and metastasis. We also discuss the potential applications of ncRNAs in tumor diagnosis and therapy. The progress in ncRNA research greatly improves our understanding of ncRNAs in oncogenesis and provides new potential targets for future tumor therapy.
LncRNA,CircRNA,Cancer stem cells,Tumorigenesis,Niche
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