Product states optimize quantum $p$-spin models for large $p$

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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We consider the problem of estimating the maximal energy of quantum $p$-local spin glass random Hamiltonians, the quantum analogues of widely studied classical spin glass models. Denoting by $E^*(p)$ the (appropriately normalized) maximal energy in the limit of a large number of qubits $n$, we show that $E^*(p)$ approaches $\sqrt{2\log 6}$ as $p$ increases. This value is interpreted as the maximal energy of a much simpler so-called Random Energy Model, widely studied in the setting of classical spin glasses. Our most notable and (arguably) surprising result proves the existence of near-maximal energy states which are product states, and thus not entangled. Specifically, we prove that with high probability as $n\to\infty$, for any $EMore
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