CHAM: A Customized Homomorphic Encryption Accelerator for Fast Matrix-Vector Product

Xuanle Ren, Zhaohui Chen,Zhen Gu, Yanheng Lu, Ruiguang Zhong, Wen-Jie Lu,Jiansong Zhang, Yichi Zhang, Hanghang Wu, Xiaofu Zheng, Heng Liu, Tingqiang Chu, Cheng Hong,Changzheng Wei,Dimin Niu,Yuan Xie

2023 60th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)(2023)

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Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a promising technique for privacy-preserving computing because it allows computation on encrypted data without decryption. HE, however, suffers from poor performance due to enlarged data size and exploded amount of computation. Related work has been proposed to accelerate HE using GPUs, FPGAs, and ASICs. The existing work, however, aims at specific HE schemes and fails to consider the fast-evolving algorithms. For example, HE algorithms that combine different HE schemes have demonstrated capability of supporting more types of HE operations and ciphertexts. Moreover, some existing hardware accelerators target small HE operations (such as number theoretic transform and key-switch), which however provides limited or even neglected performance improvement for end-to-end applications. To better support existing privacy-preserving applications (e.g., logistic regression and neural network inference), we propose CHAM, an HE accelerator, for high-performance matrix-vector product, which can be easily extended to 2-D and 3-D convolutions. Motivated by the evolution of algorithms, CHAM supports not only traditional HE operations, but also different types of ciphertexts and the conversion between them. We implement CHAM with Xilinx FPGAs. The evaluation demonstrates 1800× speed-up for matrix-vector product, 36× speed-up for logistic regression, and 144× speed-up for Beaver triple generation compared to the existing work.
homomorphic encryption,accelerator,matrix-vector product,logistic regression
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