Few-mode erbium-doped fiber with trench and weak coupling for mode gain equalization based on layered-doping technology.

Applied optics(2023)

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Abstract
A few-mode erbium-doped fiber (FM-EDF) with a step refractive index and trench structure is designed and proposed to realize the modal gain equalization of a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier (FM-EDFA). The layered-doping technology is used to reduce the mode gain difference (DMG). The doping radius and doping concentration are adjusted to obtain the optimum FM-EDF structure. When the designed FM-EDF is applied to the FM-EDFA, the DMG of the whole C-band is less than 0.15 dB and the DMG is less than 0.12 dB at 1550 nm. The minimum refractive index difference ( ) between modes can be calculated according to the refractive index and radius of the fiber core; i.e., 1.35×10, which will greatly reduce the coupling between modes in a practical application. Tolerances in the fiber manufacturing process are also considered for reliable FM-EDFA performance. When the doping radius and concentration of each doping layer fluctuate by ±15 based on the precise value, the maximum DMG increases to 1.8 dB. In general, DMG can maintain a small value, which is beneficial for application in optical communications systems.
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Key words
few-mode gain equalization,fiber,erbium-doped,layered-doping
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