SV2B defines a subpopulation of synaptic vesicles.

Journal of molecular cell biology(2023)

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Synaptic vesicles can undergo several modes of exocytosis, endocytosis, and trafficking within individual synapses, and their fates may be linked to differences in the vesicular protein composition. Here, we mapped the intrasynaptic distribution of the synaptic vesicle proteins SV2B and SV2A in glutamatergic synapses of the hippocampus using three-dimensional electron microscopy. SV2B is almost completely absent from both docked vesicles and a distinct cluster of vesicles found near the active zone. In contrast, SV2A was found in all domains of the synapse and was slightly enriched near the active zone. SV2B and SV2A were found on the membrane in the peri-active zone, suggesting recycling from both clusters of vesicles. SV2B knockout mice displayed an increased seizure induction threshold only in a model employing high-frequency stimulation. Our data show that glutamatergic synapses generate molecularly distinct populations of synaptic vesicles and are able to maintain them at steep spatial gradients. The almost complete absence of SV2B from vesicles at the active zone of wildtype mice may explain why SV2A has been found to be more important for vesicle release.
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