Concurrence of seizures and peri-ictal delirium in the critically ill - its frequency, associated characteristics, and outcomes.

Journal of neurology(2023)

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BACKGROUND:To assess the frequency, clinical features, and outcome of peri-ictal delirium in adult patients experiencing seizures during intensive care. METHODS:This observational study was conducted at a Swiss intensive care unit from 2015 to 2020. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with seizures were categorized as peri-ictal delirious (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist [i.e., ICDSC] ≥ 4) or not (i.e., ICDSC < 4) within 24 h of seizures. The frequency of peri-ictal delirium and in-hospital death were defined as the primary endpoints. Illness severity and treatment characteristics between delirious and non-delirious patients were secondary endpoints. Logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital death and differences regarding clinical characteristics between delirious and non-delirious patients. RESULTS:48% of 200 patients had peri-ictal delirium for a median of 3 days. Delirious patients were older (median age 69 vs. 62 years, p = 0.002), had lower Simplified Acute Physiology Scores II (SAPS II; median 43 vs. 54, p = 0.013), received neuroleptics more frequently (31 vs. 5%, p < 0.001), were mechanically ventilated less often (56% vs. 73%, p = 0.013) and shorter (median 3 vs. 5 days, p = 0.011), and had decreased odds for in-hospital death with delirium (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.84) in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS:Delirium emerged in every second patient experiencing seizures and was associated with lower SAPS II, shorter mechanical ventilation, and better outcomes, contradicting assumptions that altered cerebral function, from seizures and delirium, are linked to unfavorable outcomes.
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