Long-Pulse Laser-Induced Cavitation: A Race Between Advection and Phase Transition

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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摘要
Vapor bubbles generated by long-pulsed laser often have complex non-spherical shapes that reflect some characteristics (e.g., direction, width) of the laser beam. The transition between two commonly observed shapes - namely, a rounded pear-like shape and an elongated conical shape - is studied using a new computational model that combines compressible multiphase fluid dynamics with laser radiation and phase transition. Two laboratory experiments are simulated, in which Holmium:YAG and Thulium fiber lasers are used separately to generate bubbles of different shapes. In both cases, the bubble morphology predicted by the simulation agrees reasonably well with the experimental measurement. The simulated laser radiance, temperature, velocity, and pressure fields are analyzed to explain bubble dynamics and energy transmission. It is found that due to the lasting energy input (i.e. long-pulsed laser), the vapor bubble's dynamics is driven not only by advection, but also by the continuation of vaporization. Notably, vaporization lasts less than 1 microsecond in the case of the pear-shaped bubble, versus more than 50 microseconds for the elongated bubble. It is hypothesized that the bubble's shape is the result of a competition. When the speed of advection is higher than that of vaporization, the bubble tends to grow spherically. Otherwise, it elongates along the laser beam direction. To clarify and test this hypothesis, the two speeds are defined analytically using a simplified model, then estimated for the experiments using simulation results. The results support the hypothesis. They also suggest that a higher laser absorption coefficient and a narrower beam facilitate bubble elongation.
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