Impact of Additional Administration of von Willebrand Factor Concentrates to Thrombocyte Transfusion in Perioperative Bleeding in Cardiac Surgery


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Background: Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is an important part of blood coagulation since it binds platelets to each other and to endothelial cells. In traumatic and surgical haemorrhage, both blood cells and plasmatic factors are consumed, leading to consumption coagulopathy and fluid resuscitation. This often results in large amounts of crystalloids and blood products being infused. Additional administration of vWF complex and platelets might mitigate this problem. We hypothesize that administration of vWF concentrate additionally to platelet concentrates reduces blood loss and the amount of blood products (platelets, red blood cells [RBC], fresh frozen plasma [FFP]) administered. Methods: We conducted a monocentric 6-year retrospective data analysis of cardiac surgery patients. Included were all patients receiving platelet concentrates within 48 h postoperatively. Patients who additionally received vWF concentrates were allocated to the intervention group and all others to the control group. Groups were compared in mixed regression models correcting for known confounders, based on nearest neighbour propensity score matching. Primary endpoints were loss of blood (day one and two) and amount of needed blood products on day one and two (platelets, RBC, FFP). Secondary endpoints were intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay, ICU and in-hospital mortality, and absolute difference of platelet counts before and after treatment. Results: Of 497 patients analysed, 168 (34%) received vWF concentrates. 121 patients in both groups were considered for nearest neighbour matching. Patients receiving additional vWF were more likely to receive more blood products (RBC, FFP, platelets) in the first 24 h after surgery and had around 200 mL more blood loss at the same time. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, no benefit in additional administration of vWF to platelet concentrates on perioperative blood loss, transfusion requirement (platelets, RBC, FFP), length of stay, and mortality could be found. These findings should be verified in a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial ( identifier NCT04555785).
Blood loss,Blood products,Coagulation factor VIII,Haemate & REG,,Platelets,Von Willebrand factor
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