BeamQA: Multi-hop Knowledge Graph Question Answering with Sequence-to-Sequence Prediction and Beam Search

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 46TH INTERNATIONAL ACM SIGIR CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, SIGIR 2023(2023)

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Abstract
Knowledge Graph Question Answering (KGQA) is a task that aims to answer natural language queries by extracting facts from a knowledge graph. Current state-of-the-art techniques for KGQA rely on text-based information from graph entity and relations labels, as well as external textual corpora. By reasoning over multiple edges in the graph, these can accurately rank and return the most relevant entities. However, one of the limitations of these methods is that they cannot handle the inherent incompleteness of real-world knowledge graphs and may lead to inaccurate answers due to missing edges. To address this issue, recent advances in graph representation learning have led to the development of systems that can use link prediction techniques to handle missing edges probabilistically, allowing the system to reason with incomplete information. However, existing KGQA frameworks that use such techniques often depend on learning a transformation from the query representation to the graph embedding space, which requires access to a large training dataset. We present BeamQA, an approach that overcomes these limitations by combining a sequence-to-sequence prediction model with beam search execution in the embedding space. Our model uses a pretrained large language model and synthetic question generation. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of BeamQA when compared to other KGQA methods on two knowledge graph question-answering datasets.
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Key words
Knowledge Graphs,Question Answering
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