Close the cancer–immunity cycle by integrating lipid nanoparticle–mRNA formulations and dendritic cell therapy

Nature Nanotechnology(2023)

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Effective cancer immunotherapy is usually blocked by immunosuppressive factors in the tumour microenvironment, resulting in tumour promotion, metastasis and recurrence. Here we combine lipid nanoparticle–mRNA formulations and dendritic cell therapy (named CATCH) to boost the cancer–immunity cycle via progressive steps to overcome the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. Multiple types of sugar-alcohol-derived lipid nanoparticles are conceived to modulate the cancer–immunity cycle. First, one type of lipid nanoparticle containing CD40 ligand mRNA induces robust immunogenic cell death in tumoural tissues, leading to the release of tumour-associated antigens and the expression of CD40 ligand. Next, dendritic cells engineered by another type of lipid nanoparticle encapsulating CD40 mRNA are adoptively transferred, which are then activated by the CD40 ligand molecules in tumoural tissues. This promotes the secretion of multiple cytokines and chemokines, and the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells, which are crucial for reprogramming the tumour microenvironment and priming the T-cell responses. After dendritic cells present tumour-associated antigens to T cells, all the above stepwise events contribute to boosting a potent tumour-specific T-cell immunity that eradicates established tumours, suppresses distal lesions and prevents tumour rechallenge.
Drug delivery,Nanoparticles,Nanotechnology in cancer,Materials Science,general,Nanotechnology,Nanotechnology and Microengineering
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