Dysbiotic change in gastric microbiome and its functional implication in gastric carcinogenesis


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Although there is a growing interest in the role of gastric microbiome on the development of gastric cancer, the exact mechanism is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the changes of gastric microbiome during gastric carcinogenesis, and to predict the functional potentials of the microbiome involved in the cancer development. The gastric microbiome was analyzed using gastric juice samples from 88 prospectively enrolled patients, who were classified into gastritis, gastric adenoma, or early/advanced gastric cancer group. Differences in microbial diversity and composition were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing method. Metagenomic biomarkers were selected using logistic regression models, based on relative abundances at genus level. We used Tax4Fun to predict possible functional pathways of gastric microbiome involved in the carcinogenesis. The microbial diversity continuously decreased in its sequential process of gastric carcinogenesis, from gastritis to gastric cancer. The microbial composition was significantly different among the four groups of each disease status, as well as between the cancer group and non-cancer group. Gastritis group was differently enriched with genera Akkermansia and Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 Group, whereas the cancer group was enriched with Lactobacillus and Veillonella. Predictive analysis of the functional capacity of the microbiome suggested enrichment or depletion of several functional pathways related to carcinogenesis in the cancer group. There are significant changes in the diversity and composition of gastric microbiome during the gastric carcinogenesis process. Gastric cancer was characterized with microbial dysbiosis, along with functional changes potentially favoring carcinogenesis.
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