Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance

Cynthia E. Flynn,Jeannette Guarner

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc(2023)

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The burden of emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the United States is significant and even greater worldwide. Mitigation efforts have decreased the incidence and deaths from antimicrobial-resistant organisms in the United States. Yet more than 2.8 million antimicrobial-resistant infections occur every year and more than 35,000 patients die as a result. Infection prevention and control, data tracking, antimicrobial stewardship, vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and sanitation are all required to decrease AMR threats. In 2019, in the second version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report on antibiotic-resistant threats, the agency categorized AMR threats as urgent, serious, concerning, or to be watched. This review will discuss the following aspects of each bacterium in the CDC report: estimated numbers of cases and deaths, identify the better known and impactful mechanisms of resistance, diagnostic testing and its limitations, and current and possible future therapies. This review also presents anatomical pathology case examples that highlight the altered morphology of antibiotic partially treated bacteria in tissues.
antibiotic resistance,carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,extended spectrum beta-lactamase,methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus pneumonia,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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