Believing is seeing: belief in dualism is related with illusory pattern detection

crossref(2022)

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摘要
Although incompatible with modern scientific thinking, dualistic beliefs are still widespread in society. Previous studies suggest that such beliefs are associated with social behavior and health-related attitudes. More recently, studies have also shown that belief in dualism is related to more basic social cognitive processes, such as detecting biological motion in noisy displays. However, dualistic beliefs are strongly related to paranormal beliefs, which are also correlated with biological motion perception. The question thus arises whether the previously found relationship between belief in dualism and biological motion perception can be explained by paranormal beliefs and whether this relationship is unique to biological motion or reflects a more general tendency to see patterns in noise. In three experiments, we show that belief in dualism correlates negatively with perceptual sensitivity and positively with false alarm rate in both a biological motion perception task and a random dot motion task. In addition, paranormal belief was found to explain the relationship between belief in dualism and biological motion perception. These findings suggest that correlations between belief in dualism and biological motion perception are best explained in terms of a more general relationship between belief in dualism and (illusory) pattern recognition.
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