Differentiable Display Photometric Stereo

Seokjun Choi, Seungwoo Yoon,Giljoo Nam,Seungyong Lee, Seung-Hawn Baek

CVPR 2024(2023)

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Photometric stereo leverages variations in illumination conditions to reconstruct per-pixel surface normals. The concept of display photometric stereo, which employs a conventional monitor as an illumination source, has the potential to overcome limitations often encountered in bulky and difficult-to-use conventional setups. In this paper, we introduce Differentiable Display Photometric Stereo (DDPS), a method designed to achieve high-fidelity normal reconstruction using an off-the-shelf monitor and camera. DDPS addresses a critical yet often neglected challenge in photometric stereo: the optimization of display patterns for enhanced normal reconstruction. We present a differentiable framework that couples basis-illumination image formation with a photometric-stereo reconstruction method. This facilitates the learning of display patterns that leads to high-quality normal reconstruction through automatic differentiation. Addressing the synthetic-real domain gap inherent in end-to-end optimization, we propose the use of a real-world photometric-stereo training dataset composed of 3D-printed objects. Moreover, to reduce the ill-posed nature of photometric stereo, we exploit the linearly polarized light emitted from the monitor to optically separate diffuse and specular reflections in the captured images. We demonstrate that DDPS allows for learning display patterns optimized for a target configuration and is robust to initialization. We assess DDPS on 3D-printed objects with ground-truth normals and diverse real-world objects, validating that DDPS enables effective photometric-stereo reconstruction.
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