ViDA: Homeostatic Visual Domain Adapter for Continual Test Time Adaptation

Jiaming Liu,Senqiao Yang, Peidong Jia, Ming Lu,Yandong Guo, Wei Xue,Shanghang Zhang


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Since real-world machine systems are running in non-stationary and continually changing environments, Continual Test-Time Adaptation (CTTA) task is proposed to adapt the pre-trained model to continually changing target domains. Recently, existing methods mainly focus on model-based adaptation, which aims to leverage a self-training manner to extract the target domain knowledge. However, pseudo labels can be noisy and the updated model parameters are uncertain under dynamic data distributions, leading to error accumulation and catastrophic forgetting in the continual adaptation process. To tackle these challenges and maintain the model plasticity, we tactfully design a Visual Domain Adapter (ViDA) for CTTA, explicitly handling both domain-specific and domain-agnostic knowledge. Specifically, we first comprehensively explore the different domain representations of the adapters with trainable high and low-rank embedding space. Then we inject ViDAs into the pre-trained model, which leverages high-rank and low-rank prototypes to adapt the current domain distribution and maintain the continual domain-shared knowledge, respectively. To adapt to the various distribution shifts of each sample in target domains, we further propose a Homeostatic Knowledge Allotment (HKA) strategy, which adaptively merges knowledge from each ViDA with different rank prototypes. Extensive experiments conducted on four widely-used benchmarks demonstrate that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance in both classification and segmentation CTTA tasks. In addition, our method can be regarded as a novel transfer paradigm and showcases promising results in zero-shot adaptation of foundation models to continual downstream tasks and distributions.
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