SQL-PaLM: Improved Large Language ModelAdaptation for Text-to-SQL


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One impressive emergent capability of large language models (LLMs) is generation of code, including Structured Query Language (SQL) for databases. For the task of converting natural language text to SQL queries, Text-to-SQL, adaptation of LLMs is of paramount importance, both in in-context learning and fine-tuning settings, depending on the amount of adaptation data used. In this paper, we propose an LLM-based Text-to-SQL model SQL-PaLM, leveraging on PaLM-2, that pushes the state-of-the-art in both settings. Few-shot SQL-PaLM is based on an execution-based self-consistency prompting approach designed for Text-to-SQL, and achieves 77.3% in test-suite accuracy on Spider, which to our best knowledge is the first to outperform previous state-of-the-art with fine-tuning by a significant margin, 4%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the fine-tuned SQL-PALM outperforms it further by another 1%. Towards applying SQL-PaLM to real-world scenarios we further evaluate its robustness on other challenging variants of Spider and demonstrate the superior generalization capability of SQL-PaLM. In addition, via extensive case studies, we demonstrate the impressive intelligent capabilities and various success enablers of LLM-based Text-to-SQL.
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