A cellular automaton traffic model by mechanical restriction and the slow-to-start rules in the framework of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory

International Journal of Modern Physics C(2023)

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Abstract
Most of the conventional cellular automaton (CA) traffic flow models have two shortcomings: unlimited deceleration capabilities and incapability of reproducing the synchronized flow in the three-phase traffic flow theory. Based on an original deceleration CA model that emphasizes limited mechanical capabilities and human overreaction as the origin of congested traffic states, this paper proposes a new deceleration CA model where the slow-to-start rules are incorporated. For periodic boundary conditions, one also finds that the present model can reproduce well the three different phases of traffic flow (free flow, synchronized traffic flow, wide moving jam) as well as two first-order phase transitions (the transitions from free flow to synchronized flow and from synchronized flow to wide moving jam) among them. Compared to the original deceleration CA model, one notes that the phase transition from the synchronized flow to wide moving jam becomes distinguishable. Furthermore, the present model can reliably reproduce most empirical findings including synchronized flow with different slopes, the so-called pinch effect, and the time-headway distribution of free flow and so on. Importantly, the synchronized flow with different slopes is supported by spatiotemporal diagrams and the statistical distribution of velocity and so on. For open boundary conditions, the present model can reproduce the spatiotemporal diagrams of well-known five patterns including moving synchronized flow pattern, localized synchronized flow pattern, widening synchronized flow pattern, dissolving general pattern and general pattern.
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Key words
Mechanical restriction,human overreaction,three-phase traffic flow,slow-to-start rules,brake light,normal distribution
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