Chemical foaming-assisted synthesis of N, O co-doped hierarchical porous carbon from soybean protein for high rate performance supercapacitors


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The conversion of biomass into porous carbon materials with hierarchical porosity and rich heteroatom doping is vital for supercapacitors. However, it is still challenging to efficiently synthesize high-capacitance porous carbon materials with optimized porosity. Herein, N, O co-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials with good rate performance were obtained from Zn(NO3)(2)center dot 6H(2)O and soybean protein by a facile one-step chemical foaming process. Zn(NO3)(2)center dot 6H2O not only functioned as the foaming agent, but also acted as the precursor of hard templates and activation agent. The influence of Zn(NO3)(2)center dot 6H(2)O content and carbonization temperature on the microstructure and capacitance performance of the resulting carbonaceous products were investigated. The optimized sample exhibited the largest specific surface area of 1350 m(2) g(-1) and Vt of 1.01 cm(3) g(-1). The specific capacitance could reach 248 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and retain 109 F g(-1)at 100 A g(-1). The symmetrical super-capacitors exhibited a maximum energy density of 15.75 Wh kg(-1) which could light LED bulbs with a voltage of 3 V and power an electronic watch for more than 35 min demonstrating their potential applications. This work paves a shortcut to the synthesis of high rate performance hierarchical porous carbon materials with a low cost and multifunctional chemical foaming agent. The strategy is worth promoting to other biomass in producing hierarchical porous carbon materials for various energy storage devices.
Biomass,Hierarchical porous structure,Chemical foaming,N, O co-doping,High rate performance supercapacitors
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