Quiz-based Knowledge Tracing


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Knowledge tracing (KT) aims to assess individuals' evolving knowledge states according to their learning interactions with different exercises in online learning systems (OIS), which is critical in supporting decision-making for subsequent intelligent services, such as personalized learning source recommendation. Existing researchers have broadly studied KT and developed many effective methods. However, most of them assume that students' historical interactions are uniformly distributed in a continuous sequence, ignoring the fact that actual interaction sequences are organized based on a series of quizzes with clear boundaries, where interactions within a quiz are consecutively completed, but interactions across different quizzes are discrete and may be spaced over days. In this paper, we present the Quiz-based Knowledge Tracing (QKT) model to monitor students' knowledge states according to their quiz-based learning interactions. Specifically, as students' interactions within a quiz are continuous and have the same or similar knowledge concepts, we design the adjacent gate followed by a global average pooling layer to capture the intra-quiz short-term knowledge influence. Then, as various quizzes tend to focus on different knowledge concepts, we respectively measure the inter-quiz knowledge substitution by the gated recurrent unit and the inter-quiz knowledge complementarity by the self-attentive encoder with a novel recency-aware attention mechanism. Finally, we integrate the inter-quiz long-term knowledge substitution and complementarity across different quizzes to output students' evolving knowledge states. Extensive experimental results on three public real-world datasets demonstrate that QKT achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to existing methods. Further analyses confirm that QKT is promising in designing more effective quizzes.
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