The Effectiveness and Safety of Rectal Modular Resection in Low Rectal Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A(2023)

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Abstract
Described by Heald in 1982, total mesorectal excision (TME) is now routinely performed as the standard procedure for mid-low rectal cancer, with remarkable decrease in local recurrence and improved oncology outcome. However, the integrity of the resected mesentery and damage to autonomic nerves still remain challenging for general surgeons, especially in the cohort of neoadjuvant therapy patients. The concept of rectal modular resection (RMR), based on an integral understanding of the regional anatomy, was proposed as a surgical skill for dissociation of the rectum with shorter surgical duration, function preservation, and improved oncology outcome. This was a retrospective trial. Patients with resectable rectal lesions, ranging between 3 and 7 cm from the anal verge, were enrolled and grouped by TME surgery based on RMR or classical procedure resection (CPR). We estimated perioperative outcomes, including surgery complications such as anastomotic leak, urine retention, and others. Pathological properties, including distal clearance, harvested lymph nodes, tumor differentiation, and specimen grading, were also taken into account. Patients were followed postoperatively and functional evaluation was recorded at the 3-month and 1-year postoperation visits. From January 2019 to December 2021, a total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study. TME surgery complying with the RMR methodology was performed with a back-to-bilateral-to-front modular proceeding. Duration of operation was significantly shortened in the RMR group, without increase in blood loss or failure rate of anus preservation. The quality of the specimen, graded according to integrity of the mesorectum, stands out in the RMR group. Functional evaluation revealed no statistical difference between RMR and CPR groups regarding sexual ability impairment and defecation disorder since follow-up is still ongoing. RMR-based TME was efficient with compressed operation duration compared with CPR and its safety was well validated with regard to the occurrence of complications and function loss.
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Key words
rectal cancer,rectal modular resection,total mesorectal excision
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