Low-Temperature Deformation and Fracture of Cr-Mn-N Stainless Steel: Tensile and Impact Bending Tests

Natalia Narkevich, Ilya Vlasov, Mikhail Volochaev, Yulia Gomorova, Yury Mironov,Sergey Panin,Filippo Berto大牛学者, Pavel Maksimov, Evgeny Deryugin


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The paper presents the results of tensile and impact bending tests of 17%Cr-19%Mn-0.53%N high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel in temperatures ranging from -196 to 20 degrees C. The steel microstructure and fracture surfaces were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopes, as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The steel experiences a ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT); however, it possessed high tensile and impact strength characteristics, as well as the ductile fracture behavior at temperatures down to -114 degrees C. The correspondence between gamma-epsilon microstructure and fracture surface morphologies was revealed after the tensile test at the temperature of -196 degrees C. In this case, the transgranular brittle and layered fracture surface was induced by epsilon-martensite formation. Under the impact bending test at -196 degrees C, the brittle intergranular fracture occurred at the elastic deflection stage without significant plastic strains, which preceded a failure due to the high internal stresses localized at the boundaries of the austenite grains. The stresses were induced by: (i) segregation of nitrogen atoms at the grain boundaries and in the near-boundary regions, (ii) quenching stresses, and (iii) reducing fcc lattice volume with the test temperature decrease and incorporation of nitrogen atoms into fcc austenite lattice. Anisotropy of residual stresses was revealed. This was manifested in the localization of elastic deformations of the fcc lattice and, consequently, the stress localization in -oriented grains; this is suggested to be the reason of brittle cleavage fracture.
high-nitrogen steel,austenite,tensile test,impact bending test,ductile-to-brittle transition,internal stresses,fracture
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