Designing an Embedded Feature Selection Algorithm for a Drowsiness Detector Model Based on Electroencephalogram Data.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)(2023)

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Driver fatigue reduces the safety of traditional driving and limits the widespread adoption of self-driving cars; hence, the monitoring and early detection of drivers' drowsiness plays a key role in driving automation. When representing the drowsiness indicators as large feature vectors, fitting a machine learning model to the problem becomes challenging, and the problem's perspicuity decreases, making dimensionality reduction crucial in practice. For this reason, we propose an embedded feature selection algorithm that can be later utilized as a building block in the system development of a neural network-based drowsiness detector. We have adopted a technique: a so-called Feature Prune Layer is placed in front of the first layer in the architecture; as a result, its weights change regarding the importance of the corresponding input features and are deleted iteratively until the desired number is reached. We test the algorithm on EEG data, as it is one of the best indicators of drowsiness based on the literature. The proposed FS algorithm is able to reduce the original feature set by 95% with only 1% degradation in precision, while the precision increases by 1.5% and 2.7% respectively when selecting the top 10% and top 20% of the initial features. Moreover, the proposed method outperforms the widely popular Principal Component Analysis and the Chi-squared test when reducing the original feature set by 95%: it achieves 24.3% and 3.2% higher precision respectively.
EEG signals,drivers’ drowsiness detection,driving automation,feature selection
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