Remotely Controlled Light/Electric/Magnetic Multiresponsive Hydrogel for Fast Actuations.

ACS applied materials & interfaces(2023)

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As a kind of soft smart material, hydrogel actuators have extensive development prospects, but it is still difficult for these actuators to integrate multiresponsiveness, multiple remote actuation, high strength, fast responsiveness, and programmable complex deformation. Herein, we have explored an anisotropic bilayer hydrogel actuator with an FeO/co-poly(isopropylacrylamide-4-benzoylphenyl acrylate) [FeO/P(NIPAM-ABP)] active layer and an isotropic conductive adhesive (ICAs) passive layer based on the layer-by-layer method. Benefiting from the fibrosis and porosity of the FeO/P(NIPAM-ABP) hydrogel, the ICAs-FeO/P(NIPAM-ABP) hydrogel actuator has excellent mechanical strength (tensile strength of 3.1 ± 0.3 MPa) and response speed (temperature (45 °C): bending speed of 2400.3°/s; near-infrared (NIR) light: bending speed of 356.4°/s; electricity (2 V): bending speed of 180°/s; water (10 °C): recovery speed of 30.0°/s). In addition, the good photothermal properties and magnetic conductivity of FeO nanoparticles provide precise remotely controllable light- and magnetic-actuated properties for the hydrogel actuator. The Ag microsheets with excellent conductivity (1.4 × 10 S/cm) provide remotely controllable electrical-actuated property for the hydrogel actuator. Combined with the responsiveness of P(NIPAM-ABP), the actuator can achieve short-range actuation including temperature-, ethanol-, and salt-responses. More importantly, it can achieve remote actuation including light, electrical, and magnetic responses. Finally, the FeO/P(NIPAM-ABP) fibers can provide excellent anisotropic structures for the actuator to achieve precise deformational programmability. Inspired by some phenomena in nature, several actuating devices with the above characteristics have been successfully developed. This study can provide a general method for multifunctional anisotropic hydrogel actuators and will provide a new strategy for exploring smart materials suitable for complex bioinspired systems.
electrospinning,functional complementation,hydrogel actuator,multistimuli-responsive,remote actuation
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