Heart and brain traumatic stress biomarker analysis with and without machine learning: A scoping review.

Darius Rountree-Harrison,Shlomo Berkovsky,Maria Kangas

International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology(2023)

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The enigma of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is embedded in a complex array of physiological responses to stressful situations that result in disruptions in arousal and cognitions that characterise the psychological disorder. Deciphering these physiological patterns is complex, which has seen the use of machine learning (ML) grow in popularity. However, it is unclear to what extent ML has been used with physiological data, specifically, the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) to further understand the physiological responses associated with PTSD. To better understand the use of EEG and ECG biomarkers, with and without ML, a scoping review was undertaken. A total of 124 papers based on adult samples were identified comprising 19 ML studies involving EEG and ECG. A further 21 studies using EEG data, and 84 studies employing ECG meeting all other criteria but not employing ML were included for comparison. Identified studies indicate classical ML methodologies currently dominate EEG and ECG biomarkers research, with derived biomarkers holding clinically relevant diagnostic implications for PTSD. Discussion of the emerging trends, algorithms used and their success is provided, along with areas for future research.
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