Enhancing the ethanol production by exploiting a novel metagenomic-derived bifunctional xylanase/β-glucosidase enzyme with improved β-glucosidase activity by a nanocellulose carrier.

Frontiers in microbiology(2022)

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Abstract
Some enzymes can catalyze more than one chemical conversion for which they are physiologically specialized. This secondary function, which is called underground, promiscuous, metabolism, or cross activity, is recognized as a valuable feature and has received much attention for developing new catalytic functions in industrial applications. In this study, a novel bifunctional xylanase/β-glucosidase metagenomic-derived enzyme, PersiBGLXyn1, with underground β-glucosidase activity was mined by in-silico screening. Then, the corresponding gene was cloned, expressed and purified. The PersiBGLXyn1 improved the degradation efficiency of organic solvent pretreated coffee residue waste (CRW), and subsequently the production of bioethanol during a separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process. After characterization, the enzyme was immobilized on a nanocellulose (NC) carrier generated from sugar beet pulp (SBP), which remarkably improved the underground activity of the enzyme up to four-fold at 80°C and up to two-fold at pH 4.0 compared to the free one. The immobilized PersiBGLXyn1 demonstrated 12 to 13-fold rise in half-life at 70 and 80°C for its underground activity. The amount of reducing sugar produced from enzymatic saccharification of the CRW was also enhanced from 12.97 g/l to 19.69 g/l by immobilization of the enzyme. Bioethanol production was 29.31 g/l for free enzyme after 72 h fermentation, while the immobilized PersiBGLXyn1 showed 51.47 g/l production titre. Overall, this study presented a cost-effective in-silico metagenomic approach to identify novel bifunctional xylanase/β-glucosidase enzyme with underground β-glucosidase activity. It also demonstrated the improved efficacy of the underground activities of the bifunctional enzyme as a promising alternative for fermentable sugars production and subsequent value-added products.
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Key words
Nanocellulose carrier,bifunctional enzyme,bioethanol,in-silico screening,metagenome
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