Emergence of norms in interactions with complex rewards

Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems(2022)

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Autonomous agents are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and are playing an increasing role in wide range of safety-critical systems, such as driverless cars, exploration robots and unmanned aerial vehicles. These agents operate in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments, resulting in complex behaviour and interactions. Therefore, the need arises to model and understand more complex and nuanced agent interactions than have previously been studied. In this paper, we propose a novel agent-based modelling approach to investigating norm emergence, in which such interactions can be investigated. To this end, while there may be an ideal set of optimally compatible actions there are also combinations that have positive rewards and are also compatible. Our approach provides a step towards identifying the conditions under which globally compatible norms are likely to emerge in the context of complex rewards. Our model is illustrated using the motivating example of self-driving cars, and we present the scenario of an autonomous vehicle performing a left-turn at a T-intersection.
Norm emergence, Agent interactions, Agent-based modelling, Reinforcement learning
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