The Stimulation of Macrophages by Systematical Administration of GM-CSF Can Accelerate Adult Wound Healing Process

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES(2022)

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Abstract
Skin wound repair remains a major challenge in clinical care, and various strategies have been employed to improve the repair process. Recently, it has been reported that macrophages are important for the regeneration of various tissues and organs. However, their influence on wound repair is unclear. Here, we aimed to explore whether macrophages would participate in the wound healing process and to explore new possibilities of treatment for skin defects. We firstly created a mouse full-thickness skin defect model to observe the distribution of macrophages in the regenerating tissue and then detected the influence of macrophages on skin defect repair in both macrophage-depletion and macrophage-mobilization models. We found that the number of macrophages increased significantly after skin defect and persisted during the process of wound repair. The regeneration process was significantly prolonged in macrophage-depleted animals. RT-qPCR and ELISA assays further demonstrated that the expression of growth factors was perturbed in the regenerating tissue. The activation of macrophages by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) injection could significantly improve wound healing, accompanied with an upregulation of the expression of various growth factors. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that macrophages are critical for skin regeneration and that GM-CSF exhibited therapeutic potential for wound healing.
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Key words
macrophage, skin defect, wound repair, L-clod, GM-CSF
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