Positive Difference Distribution for Image Outlier Detection using Normalizing Flows and Contrastive Data

arXiv (Cornell University)(2023)

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Abstract
Detecting test data deviating from training data is a central problem for safe and robust machine learning. Likelihoods learned by a generative model, e.g., a normalizing flow via standard log-likelihood training, perform poorly as an outlier score. We propose to use an unlabelled auxiliary dataset and a probabilistic outlier score for outlier detection. We use a self-supervised feature extractor trained on the auxiliary dataset and train a normalizing flow on the extracted features by maximizing the likelihood on in-distribution data and minimizing the likelihood on the contrastive dataset. We show that this is equivalent to learning the normalized positive difference between the in-distribution and the contrastive feature density. We conduct experiments on benchmark datasets and compare to the likelihood, the likelihood ratio and state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods.
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Key words
image outlier detection,normalizing flows,positive difference distribution
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