Essential oil extracted from Quzhou Aurantii Fructus prevents acute liver failure through inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response

Natural products and bioprospecting(2023)

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Abstract
Quzhou Aurantii Fructus (QAF) has a long history as a folk medicine and food for the treatment of liver diseases. While our earlier study provided evidence of hepatoprotective properties contained within the flavonoids and limonins constituents in QAF, the potential preventative effects afforded by essential oil components present within QAF remains enigmatic. In this study, we prepared Quzhou Aurantii Fructus essential oil (QAFEO) and confirmed its anti-inflammatory effects on liver inflammation through experimentation on lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN) induced acute liver failure (ALF) mouse models. Using RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) analysis, we found that QAFEO prevented ALF by systematically blunting the pathways involved in response to LPS and toll-like receptor signaling pathways. QAFEO effectively suppressed the phosphorylation of tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (TAK1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and the activation of mitogen activated kinase-like protein (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, QAFEO substantially reduced myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)- toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) interaction levels. Moreover, 8 compounds from QAFEO could directly bind to REAL, TAK1, MyD88, TBK1, and IRF3. Taken together, the results of our study support the notion that QAFEO exerts a hepatoprotective effect through inhibiting LPS-mediated inflammatory response. Graphical abstract
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Key words
Quzhou Aurantii Fructus, Essential oil, Acute liver failure, LPS, Inflammation
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