Using an Improved Residual Network to Identify PIK3CA Mutation Status in Breast Cancer on Ultrasound Image


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BackgroundThe detection of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase catalytic alpha (PIK3CA) gene mutations in breast cancer is a key step to design personalizing an optimal treatment strategy. Traditional genetic testing methods are invasive and time-consuming. It is urgent to find a non-invasive method to estimate the PIK3CA mutation status. Ultrasound (US), one of the most common methods for breast cancer screening, has the advantages of being non-invasive, fast imaging, and inexpensive. In this study, we propose to develop a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to identify PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer based on US images. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively collected 312 patients with pathologically confirmed breast cancer who underwent genetic testing. All US images (n=800) of breast cancer patients were collected and divided into the training set (n=600) and test set (n=200). A DCNN-Improved Residual Network (ImResNet) was designed to identify the PIK3CA mutations. We also compared the ImResNet model with the original ResNet50 model, classical machine learning models, and other deep learning models. ResultsThe proposed ImResNet model has the ability to identify PIK3CA mutations in breast cancer based on US images. Notably, our ImResNet model outperforms the original ResNet50, DenseNet201, Xception, MobileNetv2, and two machine learning models (SVM and KNN), with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.775. Moreover, the overall accuracy, average precision, recall rate, and F1-score of the ImResNet model achieved 74.50%, 74.17%, 73.35%, and 73.76%, respectively. All of these measures were significantly higher than other models. ConclusionThe ImResNet model gives an encouraging performance in predicting PIK3CA mutations based on breast US images, providing a new method for noninvasive gene prediction. In addition, this model could provide the basis for clinical adjustments and precision treatment.
breast cancer, gene mutation, PIK3CA, deep learning, ultrasonic image
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