Synaptotagmin 9 Modulates Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release in Striatal Neurons by Regulating Substance P Secretion.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience(2023)

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Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9) is a tandem C2 domain Ca sensor for exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells; its function in neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that, in mixed-sex cultures, SYT9 does not trigger rapid synaptic vesicle exocytosis in mouse cortical, hippocampal, or striatal neurons, unless it is massively overexpressed. In striatal neurons, loss of SYT9 reduced the frequency of spontaneous neurotransmitter release events (minis). We delved into the underlying mechanism and discovered that SYT9 was localized to dense-core vesicles that contain substance P (SP). Loss of SYT9 impaired SP release, causing the observed decrease in mini frequency. This model is further supported by loss of function mutants. Namely, Ca binding to the C2A domain of SYT9 triggered membrane fusion , and mutations that disrupted this activity abolished the ability of SYT9 to regulate both SP release and mini frequency. We conclude that SYT9 indirectly regulates synaptic transmission in striatal neurons by controlling SP release. Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9) has been described as a Ca sensor for dense-core vesicle (DCV) exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells, but its role in neurons remains unclear, despite widespread expression in the brain. This article examines the role of SYT9 in synaptic transmission across cultured cortical, hippocampal, and striatal neuronal preparations. We found that SYT9 regulates spontaneous neurotransmitter release in striatal neurons by serving as a Ca sensor for the release of the neuromodulator substance P from DCVs. This demonstrates a novel role for SYT9 in neurons and uncovers a new field of study into neuromodulation by SYT9, a protein that is widely expressed in the brain.
exocytosis,neuromodulation,neuropeptide,spontaneous neurotransmitter release,synaptic transmission,synaptotagmin
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