DISRUPTION OF DNA DAMAGE RESPONSE MODULATES THE EFFICACY OF LOCAL IMMUNOTHERAPIES IN EXPERIMENTAL GLIOMA

NEURO-ONCOLOGY(2021)

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摘要
Abstract RATIONALE Herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) suicide gene therapy is a well-established approach for in situ tumor cell killing after administration of ganciclovir (GCV), due to the induction of lethal DNA damage in HSV-TK expressing cells. Here we investigated the effects of HSV-TK gene delivery with a non-replicating serotype 5 adenovirus (AdTK) in murine glioblastoma models in combination with the ATR-inhibitor AZD6738 to disrupt the DNA damage response (DDR). METHODS We investigated the effects of disrupted DDR signaling on AdTK therapy in vitro using cytotoxicity, cytokine and flow cytometry assays in glioblastoma cell lines and in vivo with an orthotopic syngeneic murine glioblastoma model. Therapy response was monitored with MRI. Changes in the tumor microenvironment were analyzed with CyTOF. RESULTS The combination of AZD6738 with AdTK was synergistic in cytotoxicity assays, which was complemented by a significant increase of γH2AX foci. Complex modulations of the tumor microenvironment were observed with significantly reduced expression of PD-L1, MICA/B and the pro-tumorigenic cytokines IL1b and IL-4. In vivo, the combination with AZD6738 led to an increase in long-term surviving animals (66.7%) compared to GMCI (50%) and proved to be highly significant in contrast to untreated controls (p=0.0022). However, the combination treatment did not block the growth of tumors upon rechallenge in long-term survivors. CONCLUSION DDR signaling is crucial in the therapeutic efficacy of AdTK/GCV. It significantly enhances cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo while having complex ramifications at the immunological level, requiring further studies to determine ideal conditions for a maximized therapeutic benefit.
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