Pneumonia Severity and Phase Linked to Virus-Specific T Cell Responses with Distinct Immune Checkpoints during pH1N1 Infection

JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY(2022)

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摘要
The detailed features and the longitudinal variation of influenza-specific T cell responses within naturally infected patients and the relationship with disease severity remain uncertain. In this study, we characterized the longitudinal influenza-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, T cell activation, and migration-related cytokine/chemokine secretion in pH1N1-infected patients with or without viral pneumonia with human PBMCs. Both the influenza-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells presented higher responses in patients with severe infection than in mild ones, but with distinct longitudinal variations, phenotypes of memory markers, and immune checkpoints. At 7 +/- 3 d after onset of illness, effector CD8(+) T cells (CD45RA(+)CCR7(-)) with high expression of inhibitory immune receptor CD200R dominated the specific T cell responses. However, at 21 +/- 3 d after onset of illness, effector memory CD4(+) T cells (CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)) with high expression of PD1, CTLA4, and LAG3 were higher among the patients with severe disease. The specific T cell magnitude, T cell activation, and migration-related cytokines/chemokines possessed a strong connection with disease severity. Our findings illuminate the distinct characteristics of immune system activation during dynamic disease phases and its correlation with lung injury of pH1N1 patients.
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