Three-Dimensional Choroidal Vascularity Index in High Myopia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography


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Purpose To characterize the choroidal vasculature in high myopic eyes by three-dimensional choroidal vascularity index (CVI) using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 98 right eyes from 98 consecutive nonpathological myopic patients, including 46 high myopes (HM) and 52 low to moderate myopes (LMM). OCT and OCT angiography covering an area of 6 x 6 mm(2) centered on the fovea was conducted with a commercially available SS-OCT device. Three-dimensional CVI was defined as the ratio of choroidal vessel volume (CVV) to total choroidal volume. With the built-in automated quantification software, we assessed choroidal vascular and stromal features: three-dimensional CVI; CVV; choriocapillaris flow density and choroidal stroma volume (CSV) apart from choroidal thickness (CT). Results Compared to LMM, there was a significant reduction in three-dimensional CVI, CVV and CSV along with choroidal thinning in HM at both subfoveal and macular regions (all P < .01). The nasal quadrant had both the lowest CVI and the thinnest choroid. The greatest CVI was at the subfovea, while the choroid at the subfovea was thinner than that at the superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants. Multiple linear regression indicated that choroidal characteristics (CVI, CVV, CSV, CT) were mainly negatively correlated with axial length (all P < .01) instead of myopic spherical equivalent (all P > .05). Conclusions Besides two-dimensional choroidal thinning, we also found the axial length-related reduction of three-dimensional choroidal vessel and stroma components in high myopic eyes without myopic maculopathy. The quadrantal distribution characteristics of three-dimensional CVI indicate the subfovea and the nasal quadrant to be the essential quadrants for monitoring the choroidal vasculature alteration in the progression of myopia. The novel quantitative analyses of the choroidal vasculature by three-dimensional CVI may help to characterize the underlying pathophysiology of nonpathological high myopia.
High myopia, three-dimensional choroidal vascularity index, choroidal thickness, swept-source optical coherence tomography
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