Density theorems with applications in quantum signal processing

Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics(2021)

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Abstract
We study the approximation capabilities of two families of univariate polynomials that arise in applications of quantum signal processing. Although approximation only in the domain $[0,1]$ is physically desired, these polynomial families are defined by bound constraints not just in $[0,1]$, but also with additional bound constraints outside $[0,1]$. One might wonder then if these additional constraints inhibit their approximation properties within $[0,1]$. The main result of this paper is that this is not the case -- the additional constraints do not hinder the ability of these polynomial families to approximate arbitrarily well any continuous function $f:[0,1] \rightarrow [0,1]$ in the supremum norm, provided $f$ also matches any polynomial in the family at $0$ and $1$. We additionally study the specific problem of approximating the step function on $[0,1]$ (with the step from $0$ to $1$ occurring at $x=\frac{1}{2}$) using one of these families, and propose two subfamilies of monotone and non-monotone approximations. For the non-monotone case, under some additional assumptions, we provide an iterative heuristic algorithm that finds the optimal polynomial approximation.
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Key words
Quantum signal processing, Weierstrass approximation theorem, Constrained polynomial approximation, Step function approximation
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