Superpixel-based knowledge infusion in deep neural networks for image classification.

ACM Southeast Regional Conference(2022)

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Abstract
Superpixels are higher-order perceptual groups of pixels in an image, often carrying much more information than raw pixels. There is an inherent relational structure to the relationship among different superpixels of an image. This relational information can convey some form of domain information about the image, e.g. relationship between superpixels representing two eyes in a cat image. Our interest in this paper is to construct computer vision models, specifically those based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to incorporate these superpixels information. We propose a methodology to construct a hybrid model that leverages (a) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to deal with spatial information in an image, and (b) Graph Neural Network (GNN) to deal with relational superpixel information in the image. The proposed deep model is learned using a generic hybrid loss function that we call a `hybrid' loss. We evaluate the predictive performance of our proposed hybrid vision model on four popular image classification datasets: MNIST, FMNIST, CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100. Moreover, we evaluate our method on three real-world classification tasks: COVID-19 X-Ray Detection, LFW Face Recognition, and SOCOFing Fingerprint Identification. The results demonstrate that the relational superpixel information provided via a GNN could improve the performance of standard CNN-based vision systems.
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Key words
Knowledge-Infused Learning, Graph Neural Networks, Convolutional Neural Networks, Superpixels, SLIC
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