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Extending to noisy observations would be nontrivial, in the parallel case. Such an integration would be equivalent to noiseless q-Expected Hypervolume Improvement acquisition function computation with a batch size |P| + q, which would be prohibitively expensive since computation ...
Differentiable Expected Hypervolume Improvement for Parallel Multi-Objective Bayesian Optimization
NIPS 2020, (2020)
In many real-world scenarios, decision makers seek to efficiently optimize multiple competing objectives in a sample-efficient fashion. Multi-objective Bayesian optimization (BO) is a common approach, but many existing acquisition functions do not have known analytic gradients and suffer from high computational overhead. We leverage rec...More
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- The problem of optimizing multiple competing objectives is ubiquitous in scientific and engineering applications.
- Evaluating the crash safety of an automobile design experimentally is expensive due to both the manufacturing time and the destruction of a vehicle.
- In such a scenario, sample efficiency is paramount.
- An automaker could manufacture multiple vehicle designs in parallel or a web service could deploy several control policies to different segments of traffic at the same time
- The problem of optimizing multiple competing objectives is ubiquitous in scientific and engineering applications
- We demonstrate that, using modern GPU hardware and computing exact gradients, optimizing q-Expected Hypervolume Improvement acquisition function (qEHVI) is faster than existing state-of-the art methods in many practical scenarios
- Our empirical evaluation shows that qEHVI outperforms state-of-the-art multi-objective Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms using a fraction of their wall time
- Leveraging differentiable programming and modern parallel hardware, we are able to efficiently optimize qEHVI via quasi second-order methods, for which we provide convergence guarantees
- We demonstrate that our method achieves performance superior to that of state-of-the-art MO BO approaches
- Extending to noisy observations would be nontrivial, in the parallel case. Such an integration would be equivalent to noiseless qEHVI computation with a batch size |P| + q, which would be prohibitively expensive since computation scales exponentially with the batch size
- The authors empirically evaluate qEHVI on synthetic and real world optimization problems.
- The authors compare qEHVI6 against existing state of the art methods7 including SMS-EGO8, PESMO8, and analytic EHVI  with gradients6.
- The authors compare against a novel extension of ParEGO  to support parallel evaluation and constraints, neither of which have been done before to the knowledge; the authors call this method qPAREGO6.
- The authors' empirical evaluation shows that qEHVI outperforms state-of-the-art multi-objective BO algorithms using a fraction of their wall time.
- The authors demonstrate that the method achieves performance superior to that of state-of-the-art MO BO approaches
- Practical, and efficient algorithm for parallel, constrained MO BO.
- Extending to noisy observations would be nontrivial, in the parallel case.
- Such an integration would be equivalent to noiseless qEHVI computation with a batch size |P| + q, which would be prohibitively expensive since computation scales exponentially with the batch size.
- Additional wall-time performance improvements can be gained through the use of more efficient partitioning algorithms (e.g.
- The authors hope this work encourages researchers to consider more improvements from applying modern computational paradigms and tooling to MO BO, and BO more generally
- Table1: Acquisition Optimization wall time in seconds on a CPU (2x Intel Xeon E5-2680 v4 @ 2.40GHz) and a GPU (Tesla V100-SXM2-16GB). We report the mean and 2 standard errors across 20 trials. NA indicates that the algorithm does not support constraints
- Table2: Reference points for all benchmark problems. Assuming minimization. In our benchmarks, equivalently maximize the negative objectives and multiply the reference points by -1
- Table3: Acquisition Optimization wall time in seconds on a CPU (2x Intel Xeon E5-2680 v4 @ 2.40GHz) and on a GPU (Tesla V100-SXM2-16GB). The mean and two standard errors are reported. NA indicates that the algorithm does not support constraints
- Yang et al  is the only previous work to consider exact gradients of EHVI, but the authors only derive an analytical gradient for the unconstrained M = 2, q = 1 setting. All other works either do not optimize EHVI (e.g. they use it for pre-screening candidates ), optimize it with gradient-free methods , or using approximate gradients . In contrast, we use exact gradients and demonstrate that optimizing EHVI with gradients is far more efficient.
There are many alternatives to EHVI for MO BO. For example, ParEGO  randomly scalarizes the objectives and uses Expected Improvement , and SMS-EGO  uses HV in a UCB-based acquisition function and is more scalable than EHVI . Both methods have only been considered for the q = 1, unconstrained setting. Predictive entropy search for MO BO (PESMO)  has been shown to be another competitive alternative and has been extended to handle constraints  and parallel evaluations . MO max-value entropy search (MO-MES) has been shown to achieve superior optimization performance and faster wall times than PESMO, but is limited to q = 1.
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