Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminations along shipping lanes and implications of seafarer exposure: Based on PAHs in ship surface films and a film-air-water fugacity model.

The Science of the total environment(2020)

Cited 11|Views17
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Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most toxic compounds in ship tailpipe exhausts. The long-term contamination of PAHs along shipping lanes and ports is difficult to assess using conventional methods such as AIS-EFs-data based (AIS, Automatic identification system; EFs, emission factors) or field sampling methods. To address this, we collected the organic films on ship surfaces and used a modified film-air-water fugacity model to convert the film-bound concentrations to the airborne (gaseous plus particulate) concentrations. Not surprisingly, concentrations of PAHs on organic films on ship surfaces were greater than those measured on films on residential buildings. The airborne total PAH concentrations along shipping lanes in Yangtze River Delta area ranged from 63.3-325 ng m-3, which were in the same order of magnitude to those in Beijing during haze days. The incremental lifetime cancer risks by exposure to PAHs in ship indoor air were higher than the US EPA lower guideline, indicating considerable carcinogenic risks to seafarers. Our study proposes an alternative method to estimate the long-term contaminations of PAHs along shipping lanes and highlights a notable health risk to seafarers.
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