"I feel it is my responsibility to stream" - Streaming and Engaging with Intangible Cultural Heritage through Livestreaming

CHI, pp. 2292019.

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Keywords:
cultural preservation intangible cultural heritage livestreaming social media user engagement
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This work examined underrepresented groups of livestreaming users, which are a special case of intangible cultural heritage practitioners, and outlined the importance of understanding the complementary effects of livestreams and other media, the unique challenges and opportunitie...

Abstract:

Globalization has led to the destruction of many cultural practices, expressions, and knowledge found within local communities. These practices, defined by UNESCO as Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), have been identified, promoted, and safeguarded by nations, academia, organizations and local communities to varying degrees. Despite such...More

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Introduction
  • As noted by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), “Cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature” [23].
  • Intangible cultural heritage refers to social practices and traditions rooted in local cultures, such as oral traditions, customs, language, music, and craftsmanship (Figure 1), which are often passed down by personal exchanges and oral mentoring [48]
  • These practices are a manifestation of human intelligence and creativity, and a medium through which to transmit the wealth of human knowledge from generation to generation [11].
  • This list helps raise awareness about ICH, it provides limited guidance on how to engage local communities [17]
Highlights
  • As noted by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), “Cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature” [23]
  • The affinity diagramming activity revealed 5 main themes about intangible cultural heritage livestreaming in China: the activities and practices of streamers, motivations to watch and stream intangible cultural heritage, promotional strategies used by streamers, the use of technology beyond livestreaming to promote intangible cultural heritage, and the growing importance of e-commerce within intangible cultural heritage livestreams
  • The workload required to prepare and conduct intangible cultural heritage streams is significant, all the interviewed streamers voluntarily stream about intangible cultural heritage practices on public streaming platforms which are accessible to anyone
  • Unlike many popular streamers who are contracted to one platform exclusively [28], many intangible cultural heritage streamers streamed on multiple platforms
  • This took the form of posting pre-recorded, curated videos about intangible cultural heritage practices on multiple platforms to test if viewers on those platforms like their content
  • This work examined underrepresented groups of livestreaming users, which are a special case of intangible cultural heritage practitioners, and outlined the importance of understanding the complementary effects of livestreams and other media, the unique challenges and opportunities intangible cultural heritage streamers are faced with when dealing with misunderstandings, and the need to reconsider the role of engagement and media used for livestreaming
Methods
  • Inspired by the prevalence of ICH-related livestreams in China, the authors sought to explore these research questions: RQ1: What are the practices and motivations for sharing and watching ICH-related livestreams in China?

    RQ2: How do ICH streamers interact with, and engage, viewers? RQ3: What are the perceived benefits, drawbacks, and positive and negative experiences by both the ICH streamers and viewers? Interviews

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 ICH livestreamers (Table 1) and 8 viewers of these streamers to understand their practices (Table 2).
  • RQ2: How do ICH streamers interact with, and engage, viewers?
  • Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 ICH livestreamers (Table 1) and 8 viewers of these streamers to understand their practices (Table 2).
  • Interviews with streamers included questions about how they started livestreaming, their motivations to stream ICH-related content, their stream structures, how they interacted and engaged with viewers, their positive and negative experiences with livestreaming, and the challenges they faced while livestreaming.
  • Interviews with viewers included questions about their motivations to watch
Results
  • The affinity diagramming activity revealed 5 main themes about ICH livestreaming in China: the activities and practices of streamers, motivations to watch and stream ICH, promotional strategies used by streamers, the use of technology beyond livestreaming to promote ICH, and the growing importance of e-commerce within ICH livestreams.

    Activities and Practices of ICH Streamers

    the workload required to prepare and conduct ICH streams is significant, all the interviewed streamers voluntarily stream about ICH practices on public streaming platforms which are accessible to anyone.

    ICH Streamer Practices.
  • Unlike many popular streamers who are contracted to one platform exclusively [28], many ICH streamers streamed on multiple platforms.
  • S7 and S10 reported that they use two mobile phones to livestream on two platforms simultaneously to maximize their visibility
  • They choose platforms that are mostly used by local people because they want to engage local people for potential offline interactions, e.g., “I want more local people to watch my streams so that I can attract them to come to my school” (S8)
Conclusion
  • The interviews uncovered many novel aspects of livestreaming that are unique to the domain of ICH.
  • The authors echo findings from Pellicone et al [37], wherein streamers were found to negotiate tensions among social, performative, and economic motivations, but the authors discovered that ICH streamers are motivated by feelings of a social responsibility for cultural transmission and positive social impact
  • The authors found that both livestreams and curated videos by ICH streamers engage viewers; livestreams provide interactivity and chances for sociality, while curated videos offer an easy way to browse rich content, echoing Haimson et al.’s findings on live events [18].By examining ICH livestreamers’ practices in China, a better understanding of how livestreaming can help promote and safeguard ICH practices was obtained.
  • This work examined underrepresented groups of livestreaming users, which are a special case of ICH practitioners, and outlined the importance of understanding the complementary effects of livestreams and other media, the unique challenges and opportunities ICH streamers are faced with when dealing with misunderstandings, and the need to reconsider the role of engagement and media used for livestreaming
Summary
  • Introduction:

    As noted by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), “Cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature” [23].
  • Intangible cultural heritage refers to social practices and traditions rooted in local cultures, such as oral traditions, customs, language, music, and craftsmanship (Figure 1), which are often passed down by personal exchanges and oral mentoring [48]
  • These practices are a manifestation of human intelligence and creativity, and a medium through which to transmit the wealth of human knowledge from generation to generation [11].
  • This list helps raise awareness about ICH, it provides limited guidance on how to engage local communities [17]
  • Methods:

    Inspired by the prevalence of ICH-related livestreams in China, the authors sought to explore these research questions: RQ1: What are the practices and motivations for sharing and watching ICH-related livestreams in China?

    RQ2: How do ICH streamers interact with, and engage, viewers? RQ3: What are the perceived benefits, drawbacks, and positive and negative experiences by both the ICH streamers and viewers? Interviews

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 ICH livestreamers (Table 1) and 8 viewers of these streamers to understand their practices (Table 2).
  • RQ2: How do ICH streamers interact with, and engage, viewers?
  • Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 ICH livestreamers (Table 1) and 8 viewers of these streamers to understand their practices (Table 2).
  • Interviews with streamers included questions about how they started livestreaming, their motivations to stream ICH-related content, their stream structures, how they interacted and engaged with viewers, their positive and negative experiences with livestreaming, and the challenges they faced while livestreaming.
  • Interviews with viewers included questions about their motivations to watch
  • Results:

    The affinity diagramming activity revealed 5 main themes about ICH livestreaming in China: the activities and practices of streamers, motivations to watch and stream ICH, promotional strategies used by streamers, the use of technology beyond livestreaming to promote ICH, and the growing importance of e-commerce within ICH livestreams.

    Activities and Practices of ICH Streamers

    the workload required to prepare and conduct ICH streams is significant, all the interviewed streamers voluntarily stream about ICH practices on public streaming platforms which are accessible to anyone.

    ICH Streamer Practices.
  • Unlike many popular streamers who are contracted to one platform exclusively [28], many ICH streamers streamed on multiple platforms.
  • S7 and S10 reported that they use two mobile phones to livestream on two platforms simultaneously to maximize their visibility
  • They choose platforms that are mostly used by local people because they want to engage local people for potential offline interactions, e.g., “I want more local people to watch my streams so that I can attract them to come to my school” (S8)
  • Conclusion:

    The interviews uncovered many novel aspects of livestreaming that are unique to the domain of ICH.
  • The authors echo findings from Pellicone et al [37], wherein streamers were found to negotiate tensions among social, performative, and economic motivations, but the authors discovered that ICH streamers are motivated by feelings of a social responsibility for cultural transmission and positive social impact
  • The authors found that both livestreams and curated videos by ICH streamers engage viewers; livestreams provide interactivity and chances for sociality, while curated videos offer an easy way to browse rich content, echoing Haimson et al.’s findings on live events [18].By examining ICH livestreamers’ practices in China, a better understanding of how livestreaming can help promote and safeguard ICH practices was obtained.
  • This work examined underrepresented groups of livestreaming users, which are a special case of ICH practitioners, and outlined the importance of understanding the complementary effects of livestreams and other media, the unique challenges and opportunities ICH streamers are faced with when dealing with misunderstandings, and the need to reconsider the role of engagement and media used for livestreaming
Tables
  • Table1: Summary of streamers interviewed. Streaming Platforms: K–Kuaishou, H–Huoshan, D–Douyin; Location: cities listed according to the Chinese city tier system [<a class="ref-link" id="c52" href="#r52">52</a>]
  • Table2: Summary of viewers interviewed. Location: cities listed according to the Chinese city tier system [<a class="ref-link" id="c52" href="#r52">52</a>]
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • Found that ICH streamers had altruistic motivations and engaged with viewers using multiple modalities beyond livestreams
  • Found that livestreaming encouraged real-time interaction and sociality, while non-live curated videos attracted attention from a broader audience and assisted in the archiving of knowledge
  • Found that ICH streamers were less motivated by financial benefits but were motivated by selfperceived responsibilities to safeguard the cultural practices of their expertise
  • Provides insights into what other practitioners safeguarding ICH in China or in other countries can learn from Chinese ICH livestreaming practices
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