A Tale of Two Perspectives - A Conceptual Framework of User Expectations and Experiences of Instructional Fitness Apps

Ahed Aladwan
Ahed Aladwan
Ryan M. Kelly
Ryan M. Kelly
Steven Baker
Steven Baker

CHI, pp. 3942019.

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conceptual framework expectations experience fitness intermediate-level knowledgeMore(2+)
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Our framework can serve as an example to not only guide the design of instructional ftness apps, but to structure similar frameworks created for other kinds of apps, e.g. educational, entertainment, and productivity

Abstract:

We present a conceptual framework grounded in both users' reviews and HCI theories, residing between practices and theories as a form of intermediate-level knowledge in interaction design. Previous research has examined different forms of intermediary knowledge such as conceptual structures, strong concepts, and bridging concepts. Within ...More

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Introduction
  • Regular physical activity is a known factor that prevents or treats a range of physical [10, 37, 54] and mental [41, 62, 67] health conditions.
  • More than one-quarter of adults globally (1.4 billion) are physically inactive [24], which puts them at risks of developing the aforementioned conditions.
  • The World Health Organisation embraced a global action plan to achieve a 15% relative reduction in physical inactivity by 2030 [63, p.21].
  • One important pillar of this action plan is to create active people via involving stakeholders such as research and development institutes.
  • One research theme of such involvement is to investigate and expand the potential of digital technologies and innovations to promote physical activity [63, p.85]
Highlights
  • Regular physical activity is a known factor that prevents or treats a range of physical [10, 37, 54] and mental [41, 62, 67] health conditions
  • We address the question: what are the reviewers’ expectations and experiences when they interact with these apps? We construct our conceptual framework based on an analysis of these expectations and experiences
  • We consolidated the diferent categories of users’ expectations and experiences into a conceptual framework. We categorised these expectations and experiences into aspects related to the content of the apps, the functional utilities of the apps, and the psychological features of the interaction
  • Our conceptual framework is a form of intermediate knowledge describing mental states, expectations, and experiences of instructional ftness apps reviewers
  • Analysing the frst-person reactions and reviews of application users can support the creation of designs that are refective of real-world experience while being easy to use and understand
  • Our framework can serve as an example to not only guide the design of instructional ftness apps, but to structure similar frameworks created for other kinds of apps, e.g. educational, entertainment, and productivity
Methods
  • The authors' approach is to qualitatively analyse users’ online reviews of instructional ftness apps.
  • Apple does not reveal the exact details of the iOS Top App Charts ranking methodology
  • It is generally accepted within the App Store Optimisation (ASO) community that these factors include: the average app store rating; rating/review volume; download and install counts; uninstalls; app usage statistics; and weighted recent growth trends [65].
  • An additional advantage is that paid apps usually contain more features compared to free versions
Results
  • The authors consolidated the diferent categories of users’ expectations and experiences into a conceptual framework
  • The authors categorised these expectations and experiences into aspects related to the content of the apps, the functional utilities of the apps, and the psychological features of the interaction.
  • Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework.
  • When it comes to information diversity across the diferent framework categories, the authors found that content codes represented 47.2% of the total codes, utilities 39.7%, and character 13.2%, respectively.
  • The authors describe the framework in greater detail and highlight its underlying properties and attributes, using verbatim quotes from users’ reviews
Conclusion
  • The authors' conceptual framework is a form of intermediate knowledge describing mental states, expectations, and experiences of instructional ftness apps reviewers.
  • The authors' conceptual framework links vertically downwards to users experiences and opinions of design instances and upward to the distributed cognition theory as a theory that views interaction with interactive digital artefacts as a fow of information in diferent directions and trajectories.
  • It connects with design guidelines.
  • The authors' framework can serve as an example to not only guide the design of instructional ftness apps, but to structure similar frameworks created for other kinds of apps, e.g. educational, entertainment, and productivity
Summary
  • Introduction:

    Regular physical activity is a known factor that prevents or treats a range of physical [10, 37, 54] and mental [41, 62, 67] health conditions.
  • More than one-quarter of adults globally (1.4 billion) are physically inactive [24], which puts them at risks of developing the aforementioned conditions.
  • The World Health Organisation embraced a global action plan to achieve a 15% relative reduction in physical inactivity by 2030 [63, p.21].
  • One important pillar of this action plan is to create active people via involving stakeholders such as research and development institutes.
  • One research theme of such involvement is to investigate and expand the potential of digital technologies and innovations to promote physical activity [63, p.85]
  • Methods:

    The authors' approach is to qualitatively analyse users’ online reviews of instructional ftness apps.
  • Apple does not reveal the exact details of the iOS Top App Charts ranking methodology
  • It is generally accepted within the App Store Optimisation (ASO) community that these factors include: the average app store rating; rating/review volume; download and install counts; uninstalls; app usage statistics; and weighted recent growth trends [65].
  • An additional advantage is that paid apps usually contain more features compared to free versions
  • Results:

    The authors consolidated the diferent categories of users’ expectations and experiences into a conceptual framework
  • The authors categorised these expectations and experiences into aspects related to the content of the apps, the functional utilities of the apps, and the psychological features of the interaction.
  • Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework.
  • When it comes to information diversity across the diferent framework categories, the authors found that content codes represented 47.2% of the total codes, utilities 39.7%, and character 13.2%, respectively.
  • The authors describe the framework in greater detail and highlight its underlying properties and attributes, using verbatim quotes from users’ reviews
  • Conclusion:

    The authors' conceptual framework is a form of intermediate knowledge describing mental states, expectations, and experiences of instructional ftness apps reviewers.
  • The authors' conceptual framework links vertically downwards to users experiences and opinions of design instances and upward to the distributed cognition theory as a theory that views interaction with interactive digital artefacts as a fow of information in diferent directions and trajectories.
  • It connects with design guidelines.
  • The authors' framework can serve as an example to not only guide the design of instructional ftness apps, but to structure similar frameworks created for other kinds of apps, e.g. educational, entertainment, and productivity
Related work
  • Our work builds on and contributes to the agenda of ftness apps design and use, the use of online reviews to understand people interaction with technology, and the creation and application of diferent forms of intermediate-level knowledge.

    Smartphone Fitness Apps

    There have been several research apps that investigated physical activity and general ftness training. Buttussi et al [13] developed a system that supervises exercising to investigate context-aware and user-adaptive techniques as input for outdoor ftness activity programming and customisation. Consolvo et al [17] studied on-body activity sensing and inference efect on encouragement and emphasised the importance of having an interactive application that allows manipulating inferred data. Ahtinen et al [2] highlighted the role of social sharing and playfulness as motivational factors. These investigations aimed to understand specifc aspects of the interaction for general physical activity. Moreover, the design of instructional ftness apps is often excluded from studies of ftness and activity tracking technologies [e.g. 33].
Funding
  • Ahed Aladwan’s work is supported by the Australian Government Research and Training Program scholarship
  • Eduardo Velloso is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Award (Project Number: DE180100315) funded by the Australian Government
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