Room-Temperature Pressure Synthesis of Layered Black Phosphorus-Graphene Composite for Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes.

ACS nano(2018)

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Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for grid-level energy storage due to the high natural abundance of sodium and low material cost of sodium compounds. Phosphorus (P) is a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries, with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. The red phosphorus (RP) form has worse electronic conductivity and lower initial Coulombic efficiency than black phosphorus (BP), but high material cost and limited production capacity have slowed the development of BP anodes. To address these challenges, we have developed a simple and scalable method to synthesize layered BP/graphene composite (BP/rGO) by pressurization at room temperature. A carbon-black-free and binder-free BP/rGO anode prepared with this method achieved specific charge capacities of 1460.1, 1401.2, 1377.6, 1339.7, 1277.8, 1123.78, and 720.8 mAh/g in a rate capability test at charge and discharge current densities of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 A/g, respectively. In a cycling performance test, after 500 deep cycles, the capacity of BP/rGO anodes stabilized at 1250 and 640 mAh/g at 1 and 40 A/g, respectively, which marks a significant performance improvement for sodium-ion battery anodes.
black phosphorus,carbon black- and binder-free,graphene,pressurization,sodium-ion batteries,ultrafast
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