The MPEG Internet Video-Coding Standard [Standards in a Nutshell]

IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp. 164-172, 2016.

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Both the objective and subjective performance tests have been conducted within the Moving Picture Experts Group video group, and it has been determined that the ­performance of Internet video coding is comparable with the AVC high profile

Abstract:

To address the diversified needs of the Internet, the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) started the project of Internet video coding (IVC) in July 2011. It is anticipated that any patent declaration associated with the baseline profile of this standard will indicate that the patent owner is prepared to grant a fre...More

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Introduction
  • Video-coding standards lie at the heart of every aspect of video in the lives, Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSP.2016.2571440 Date of publication: 2 September 2016 including broadcast television, streaming video on the Internet, digital cinema, movies on optical disks, home movies, and video conferencing.
  • IVC is proposed by several universities, and its coding tools are developed from scratch.
  • The blocks in a macroblock are first predicted with intraprediction, and the residues are processed with the modules of transform, quantization, and entropy coding, sequentially.
  • One to four modes are available to be selected depending on the current picture coding type and partition size, as shown in Table 1.
Highlights
  • Video-coding standards lie at the heart of every aspect of video in our lives, Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSP.2016.2571440 Date of publication: 2 September 2016 including broadcast television, streaming video on the Internet, digital cinema, movies on optical disks, home movies, and video conferencing
  • Internet video coding (IVC) is proposed by several universities, and its coding tools are developed from scratch
  • This article gives an overview of the coding tools adopted in the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
  • The coding tools in IVC are developed from scratch and consist of well-known expired-patent techniques and new tools with free-ofcharge licenses
  • All prior art of IVC coding tools are recorded in an output document called the collection of information related to adopted IVC technologies, and it is updated after each new normative tool was adopted
  • Both the objective and subjective performance tests have been conducted within the MPEG video group, and it has been determined that the ­performance of IVC is comparable with the AVC high profile
Results
  • If skip mode is selected for the current macroblock, both the motion vector difference and prediction residuals are forced to zeros.
  • The motion vector difference and the interprediction residuals of the current macroblock partition are transmitted in the bitstream.
  • 4) Multiple hypothesis: In this mode, as shown in Figure 3, the interpredictor of the macroblock partition (c) is derived by averaging two forward predictors (H1 and H2) [10].
  • To predict the motion vector of the current macroblock partition, its four neighboring macroblock partitions of left, above, left-above, and right-above are used, as shown in Figure 5.
  • With the coding of some bins, the adaptive probability estimation of MPS on the logarithm domain is performed.
  • Encoded bitstreams were provided for the following two constraint cases: ■■ Constraint set 1 [CS1, known as random access (RA)]: the structural delay of the processing units not larger than an 8-picture group of pictures and random access intervals of 1.1 seconds or fewer.
  • In the RA constraint cases (CS1), IVC clearly outperforms WVC and VCB in terms of BD-BR rate in overall average by 25.2% and 23.7%, respectively, and underperforms AVC HP by 10.4%.
  • Both the objective and subjective performance tests have been conducted within the MPEG video group, and it has been determined that the ­performance of IVC is comparable with the AVC high profile.
  • S. Jang, “Royalty-free video coding standards in MPEG,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol 31, no.
  • Report of Expert Viewing Visual Test of Internet Video Coding, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/ WG11 MPEG2015/N15428, June 2015.
Conclusion
  • Bjontegaard, “Improvements to the Telenor Proposal for H.26L: More Block sizes for Prediction and RD Constrained Quantization of Transform Co­­ efficients,” ITU: Telecommunications Standardization Sector, STUDY GROUP 16, Video Coding Experts Group (Question 15), Q15-H-10, 1999.
  • S. Jang, Improved Set of Reference Frames for Internet Video Coding (IVC), ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2015/ m35748, Feb. 2015.
  • Et al, Adaptive Non-reference P Optimization for Internet Video Coding, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/ WG11 MPEG2012/M27964, Jan. 2013.
  • It is anticipated that as existing patents for video coding tools expire, these tools may be added to IVC, further improving its performance
Summary
  • Video-coding standards lie at the heart of every aspect of video in the lives, Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MSP.2016.2571440 Date of publication: 2 September 2016 including broadcast television, streaming video on the Internet, digital cinema, movies on optical disks, home movies, and video conferencing.
  • IVC is proposed by several universities, and its coding tools are developed from scratch.
  • The blocks in a macroblock are first predicted with intraprediction, and the residues are processed with the modules of transform, quantization, and entropy coding, sequentially.
  • One to four modes are available to be selected depending on the current picture coding type and partition size, as shown in Table 1.
  • If skip mode is selected for the current macroblock, both the motion vector difference and prediction residuals are forced to zeros.
  • The motion vector difference and the interprediction residuals of the current macroblock partition are transmitted in the bitstream.
  • 4) Multiple hypothesis: In this mode, as shown in Figure 3, the interpredictor of the macroblock partition (c) is derived by averaging two forward predictors (H1 and H2) [10].
  • To predict the motion vector of the current macroblock partition, its four neighboring macroblock partitions of left, above, left-above, and right-above are used, as shown in Figure 5.
  • With the coding of some bins, the adaptive probability estimation of MPS on the logarithm domain is performed.
  • Encoded bitstreams were provided for the following two constraint cases: ■■ Constraint set 1 [CS1, known as random access (RA)]: the structural delay of the processing units not larger than an 8-picture group of pictures and random access intervals of 1.1 seconds or fewer.
  • In the RA constraint cases (CS1), IVC clearly outperforms WVC and VCB in terms of BD-BR rate in overall average by 25.2% and 23.7%, respectively, and underperforms AVC HP by 10.4%.
  • Both the objective and subjective performance tests have been conducted within the MPEG video group, and it has been determined that the ­performance of IVC is comparable with the AVC high profile.
  • S. Jang, “Royalty-free video coding standards in MPEG,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol 31, no.
  • Report of Expert Viewing Visual Test of Internet Video Coding, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/ WG11 MPEG2015/N15428, June 2015.
  • Bjontegaard, “Improvements to the Telenor Proposal for H.26L: More Block sizes for Prediction and RD Constrained Quantization of Transform Co­­ efficients,” ITU: Telecommunications Standardization Sector, STUDY GROUP 16, Video Coding Experts Group (Question 15), Q15-H-10, 1999.
  • S. Jang, Improved Set of Reference Frames for Internet Video Coding (IVC), ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG2015/ m35748, Feb. 2015.
  • Et al, Adaptive Non-reference P Optimization for Internet Video Coding, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/ WG11 MPEG2012/M27964, Jan. 2013.
  • It is anticipated that as existing patents for video coding tools expire, these tools may be added to IVC, further improving its performance
Tables
  • Table1: Table 1
  • Table2: Interpolation filter coefficients for luma
  • Table3: Table 3
  • Table4: Test sequences and rate points. Class A [1920x1080p] S03 Kimono, S04 Park Scene S05 Cactus, S06 BasketballDrive Class B [836x480p (WVGA)] S08 BasketballDrill, S09 BQMall, S10 PartyScene, S11 RaceHorses Class D [1280x720p] S16 Johnny, S17 KristenAndSara, S18 FourPeople
  • Table5: Performances of IVC, VCB, and WVC relative to AVC HP
Download tables as Excel
Funding
  • This article is partly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 61370115, China 863 project of 2015AA015905, Shenzhen Peacock Plan and JCYJ20150331100658943, JCYJ20160506172227337, and Guangdong Province Project 2014B010117007
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