# Speeding Up Distributed Machine Learning Using Codes.

international symposium on information theory, no. 3 (2018): 1514-1529

EI

Abstract

Distributed machine learning algorithms that are widely run on modern large-scale computing platforms face several types of randomness, uncertainty and system “noise.” These include stragglers 1 , system failures, maintenance outages, and communication bottlenecks. In this work, we view distributed machine learning algorithms through a co...More

Code:

Data:

Introduction

- The computational paradigm for large-scale machine learning and data analytics has shifted towards massively large distributed systems, comprising individually small and unreliable computational nodes.
- The workflow of distributed machine learning algorithms in a large-scale system can be decomposed into three functional phases: a storage, a communication, and a computation phase, as shown in Fig. 1.
- In order to develop and deploy sophisticated solutions and tackle large-scale problems in machine learning, science, engineering, and commerce, it is important to understand and optimize novel and complex trade-offs across the multiple dimensions of computation, communication, storage, and the accuracy of results.
- Codes have begun to transform the storage layer of distributed systems in modern data centers under the umbrella of regenerating and locally repairable codes for distributed storage [7]–[22] which are having a major impact on industry [23]–[26]

Highlights

- In recent years, the computational paradigm for large-scale machine learning and data analytics has shifted towards massively large distributed systems, comprising individually small and unreliable computational nodes
- The workflow of distributed machine learning algorithms in a large-scale system can be decomposed into three functional phases: a storage, a communication, and a computation phase, as shown in Fig. 1
- We show how erasure codes can be applied to distributed computation to mitigate the straggler problem
- We describe one simple way of parallelizing the algorithm, which is implemented in many open-source machine learning libraries including Spark mllib [83]
- We have explored the power of coding in order to make distributed algorithms robust to a variety of sources of “system noise” such as stragglers and communication bottlenecks
- We propose Coded Shuffling that can significantly reduce the heavy price of data-shuffling, which is required for achieving high statistical efficiency in distributed machine learning algorithms

Results

- The authors will show that the runtime of the algorithm can be significantly reduced compared to that of other uncoded algorithms.
- The authors propose to use coding opportunities to significantly reduce the communication cost of some distributed learning algorithms that require data shuffling.
- The authors propose Coded Shuffling that can significantly reduce the heavy price of data-shuffling, which is required for achieving high statistical efficiency in distributed machine learning algorithms.
- The authors' preliminary experimental results validate the power of the proposed schemes in effectively curtailing the negative effects of system bottlenecks, and attaining significant speedups of up to 40%, compared to the current state-of-the-art methods

Conclusion

- The authors have explored the power of coding in order to make distributed algorithms robust to a variety of sources of “system noise” such as stragglers and communication bottlenecks.
- The authors propose Coded Shuffling that can significantly reduce the heavy price of data-shuffling, which is required for achieving high statistical efficiency in distributed machine learning algorithms.
- Matrix multiplication is one of the most basic computational blocks in many analytics, it would be interesting to leverage coding for a broader class of distributed algorithms

Related work

- A. Coded Computation and Straggler Mitigation

The straggler problem has been widely observed in distributed computing clusters. The authors of [6] show that running a computational task at a computing node often involves unpredictable latency due to several factors such as network latency, shared resources, maintenance activities, and power limits. Further, they argue that stragglers cannot be completely removed from a distributed computing cluster. The authors of [27] characterize the impact and causes of stragglers that arise due to resource contention, disk failures, varying network conditions, and imbalanced workload.

One approach to mitigate the adverse effect of stragglers is based on efficient straggler detection algorithms. For instance, the default scheduler of Hadoop constantly detects stragglers while running computational tasks. Whenever it detects a straggler, it relaunches the task that was running on the detected straggler at some other available node. In [28], Zaharia et al propose a modification to the existing straggler detection algorithm and show that the proposed solution can effectively reduce the completion time of MapReduce tasks. In [27], Ananthanarayanan et al propose a system that efficiently detects stragglers using real-time progress and cancels those stragglers, and show that the proposed system can further reduce the runtime of MapReduce tasks.

Reference

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