# Unsupervised and Semi-supervised Learning with Categorical Generative Adversarial Networks

international conference on learning representations, 2015.

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Keywords:

unknown labelgenerative modeldiscriminative classifiermaximum margin clusteringconditional generative adversarialMore(10+)

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Abstract:

In this paper we present a method for learning a discriminative classifier from unlabeled or partially labeled data. Our approach is based on an objective function that trades-off mutual information between observed examples and their predicted categorical class distribution, against robustness of the classifier to an adversarial genera...More

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Introduction

- Learning non-linear classifiers from unlabeled or only partially labeled data is a long standing problem in machine learning.
- K} denotes the unknown label
- By utilizing both labeled and unlabeled examples from the data distribution one hopes to learn a representation that captures this shared structure.
- Such a representation might, subsequently, help classifiers trained using only a few labeled examples to generalize to parts of the data distribution that it would otherwise have no information about.
- Unsupervised categorization of data is an often sought-after tool for discovering groups in datasets with unknown class structure

Highlights

- Learning non-linear classifiers from unlabeled or only partially labeled data is a long standing problem in machine learning
- We trained an unsupervised categorical generative adversarial networks on MNIST, LFW and CIFAR-10 and plot samples generated by these models in Figure 3
- As an additional quantitative evaluation we compared the unsupervised categorical generative adversarial networks model trained on MNIST with other generative models based on the log likelihood of generated samples
- In brief: The categorical generative adversarial networks model performs comparable to the best existing algorithms, achieving a log-likelihood of 237 ± 6 on MNIST; in comparison, Goodfellow et al (2014) report 225 ± 2 for generative adversarial networks. That this does not necessarily mean that the categorical generative adversarial networks model is superior as comparing generative models with respect to log-likelihood measured by a Parzen-window estimate can be misleading (see Theis et al (2015) for a recent in-depth discussion)
- We have presented categorical generative adversarial networks, a framework for robust unsupervised and semi-supervised learning
- We found the proposed method to yield classification performance that is competitive with state-of-the-art results for semi-supervised learning for image classification and further confirmed that the generator, which is learned alongside the classifier, is capable of generating images of high visual fidelity

Results

**EVALUATION OF THE GENERATIVE MODEL**

the authors qualitatively evaluate the capabilities of the generative model.**EVALUATION OF THE GENERATIVE MODEL**.- The authors qualitatively evaluate the capabilities of the generative model.
- The authors trained an unsupervised CatGAN on MNIST, LFW and CIFAR-10 and plot samples generated by these models in Figure 3.
- As an additional quantitative evaluation the authors compared the unsupervised CatGAN model trained on MNIST with other generative models based on the log likelihood of generated samples.
- That this does not necessarily mean that the CatGAN model is superior as comparing generative models with respect to log-likelihood measured by a Parzen-window estimate can be misleading (see Theis et al (2015) for a recent in-depth discussion)

Conclusion

- The authors have presented categorical generative adversarial networks, a framework for robust unsupervised and semi-supervised learning.
- The authors' method combines neural network classifiers with an adversarial generative model that regularizes a discriminatively trained classifier.
- The authors found the proposed method to yield classification performance that is competitive with state-of-the-art results for semi-supervised learning for image classification and further confirmed that the generator, which is learned alongside the classifier, is capable of generating images of high visual fidelity

Summary

## Introduction:

Learning non-linear classifiers from unlabeled or only partially labeled data is a long standing problem in machine learning.- K} denotes the unknown label
- By utilizing both labeled and unlabeled examples from the data distribution one hopes to learn a representation that captures this shared structure.
- Such a representation might, subsequently, help classifiers trained using only a few labeled examples to generalize to parts of the data distribution that it would otherwise have no information about.
- Unsupervised categorization of data is an often sought-after tool for discovering groups in datasets with unknown class structure
## Results:

**EVALUATION OF THE GENERATIVE MODEL**

the authors qualitatively evaluate the capabilities of the generative model.**EVALUATION OF THE GENERATIVE MODEL**.- The authors qualitatively evaluate the capabilities of the generative model.
- The authors trained an unsupervised CatGAN on MNIST, LFW and CIFAR-10 and plot samples generated by these models in Figure 3.
- As an additional quantitative evaluation the authors compared the unsupervised CatGAN model trained on MNIST with other generative models based on the log likelihood of generated samples.
- That this does not necessarily mean that the CatGAN model is superior as comparing generative models with respect to log-likelihood measured by a Parzen-window estimate can be misleading (see Theis et al (2015) for a recent in-depth discussion)
## Conclusion:

The authors have presented categorical generative adversarial networks, a framework for robust unsupervised and semi-supervised learning.- The authors' method combines neural network classifiers with an adversarial generative model that regularizes a discriminatively trained classifier.
- The authors found the proposed method to yield classification performance that is competitive with state-of-the-art results for semi-supervised learning for image classification and further confirmed that the generator, which is learned alongside the classifier, is capable of generating images of high visual fidelity

- Table1: Classification error, in percent, for the permutation invariant MNIST problem with a reduced number of labels. Results are averaged over 10 different sets of labeled examples
- Table2: Classification error, in percent, for different learning methods in combination with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with a reduced number of labels
- Table3: Classification error for different methods on the CIFAR-10 dataset (without data augmentation) for the full dataset and a reduced set of 400 labeled examples per class
- Table4: The discriminator and generator CNNs used for MNIST
- Table5: The discriminator and generator CNNs used for CIFAR-10
- Table6: Comparison between different generative models on MNIST

Funding

- This work was funded by the the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the priority program “Autonomous learning” (SPP1597)

Reference

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