iSkin: Flexible, Stretchable and Visually Customizable On-Body Touch Sensors for Mobile Computing

CHI, pp. 2991-3000, 2015.

Cited by: 230|Bibtex|Views198|Links
EI
Keywords:
wearable computinguser interfacesflexible sensorstretchableelectronic skinMore(3+)
Weibo:
The underlying technical solution of iSkin builds on and extends recent advances in research on electronic skin. iSkin is a proof of concept of on-skin touch sensing that bears some promise over rigid sensors and computer vision based solutions. iSkin supports touch input on the ...

Abstract:

We propose iSkin, a novel class of skin-worn sensors for touch input on the body. iSkin is a very thin sensor overlay, made of biocompatible materials, and is flexible and stretchable. It can be produced in different shapes and sizes to suit various locations of the body such as the finger, forearm, or ear. Integrating capacitive and resi...More

Code:

Data:

0
Introduction
  • The human skin is recognized as a promising input surface for interactions with mobile and wearable devices.
  • ISkin is a thin, soft, flexible, stretchable and visually customizable overlay that is worn directly on the skin.
  • It is custom-shaped and can be attached at many different locations on the body.
  • It features three touch buttons of the size of a fingertip and one linear slider with five elements
  • It allows for fast and direct control of mobile devices using touch input even when the hands are busy
Highlights
  • The human skin is recognized as a promising input surface for interactions with mobile and wearable devices
  • While prior work on electronic skin has focused on addressing questions related to skin-compatibility of materials, sensing modalities and data processing, we introduce several new dimensions that are of critical importance when the sensor overlay is used as a human-computer interface
  • Summary The above-mentioned patterns help designers to manually transfer a graphical design into a functional sensor
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This paper has contributed the design of a novel class of skinworn touch sensors
  • The underlying technical solution of iSkin builds on and extends recent advances in research on electronic skin. iSkin is a proof of concept of on-skin touch sensing that bears some promise over rigid sensors and computer vision based solutions. iSkin supports touch input on the skin
  • The design of iSkin supports the customization of touch sensors to specific applications and body locations, desired visual appearance and button layouts
Methods
  • The authors used a rectangular sensor with one circular electrode having a diameter of 1.5cm, which is a recommended size for capacitive sensing elements [2].
  • It was attached directly on the users skin using two straps of Velcro.
  • The participant was guided by an auditory metronome and received additional auditory feedback when the sensor was detecting touch contact.
  • The reported accuracy is the percentage of correctly recognized touch contacts
Results
  • The average accuracy was 92.5% (SD=11.2) for touch contact and 98.1% (SD=2.8) for firm pressure touch.
  • It seems quite safe to assume that a dedicated processing unit for capacitive touch sensing will lead to higher accuracies.
  • The authors conclude that these results provide a lower bound, showing acceptable (91.1%) to very good (99.2%) results despite the proof-of-concept level processing of sensor data.
  • This provides first evidence for suitability of the sensor for practical on-body input tasks
Conclusion
  • The above-mentioned patterns help designers to manually transfer a graphical design into a functional sensor.
  • The design of iSkin supports the customization of touch sensors to specific applications and body locations, desired visual appearance and button layouts.
  • This has allowed them to create applications to very challenging body parts, like the index finger or the back of the ear.
  • While the authors are far from a generic controller for mobile devices, the authors can already cover some essential aspects like unidimensional selection tasks and text entry
Summary
  • Introduction:

    The human skin is recognized as a promising input surface for interactions with mobile and wearable devices.
  • ISkin is a thin, soft, flexible, stretchable and visually customizable overlay that is worn directly on the skin.
  • It is custom-shaped and can be attached at many different locations on the body.
  • It features three touch buttons of the size of a fingertip and one linear slider with five elements
  • It allows for fast and direct control of mobile devices using touch input even when the hands are busy
  • Methods:

    The authors used a rectangular sensor with one circular electrode having a diameter of 1.5cm, which is a recommended size for capacitive sensing elements [2].
  • It was attached directly on the users skin using two straps of Velcro.
  • The participant was guided by an auditory metronome and received additional auditory feedback when the sensor was detecting touch contact.
  • The reported accuracy is the percentage of correctly recognized touch contacts
  • Results:

    The average accuracy was 92.5% (SD=11.2) for touch contact and 98.1% (SD=2.8) for firm pressure touch.
  • It seems quite safe to assume that a dedicated processing unit for capacitive touch sensing will lead to higher accuracies.
  • The authors conclude that these results provide a lower bound, showing acceptable (91.1%) to very good (99.2%) results despite the proof-of-concept level processing of sensor data.
  • This provides first evidence for suitability of the sensor for practical on-body input tasks
  • Conclusion:

    The above-mentioned patterns help designers to manually transfer a graphical design into a functional sensor.
  • The design of iSkin supports the customization of touch sensors to specific applications and body locations, desired visual appearance and button layouts.
  • This has allowed them to create applications to very challenging body parts, like the index finger or the back of the ear.
  • While the authors are far from a generic controller for mobile devices, the authors can already cover some essential aspects like unidimensional selection tasks and text entry
Related work
  • Our research is informed by prior work in the areas of electronic skin and on-skin input: Electronic Skin iSkin is based on recent advances in electronic skin (e-skin). E-skin makes the “effort to create an artificial skin with human-like sensory capabilities” [7]. Research in this area started with the seminal work of Lumelsky et al [18] and Someya et al [33]. Primary fields of study include multimodal sensor skins that allow robots to better sense their direct environment; soft prostheses that are capable of sensing contact, pressure or temperature; and health-monitoring devices [41].

    Advances in e-skin [7, 32, 30] and materials science now allow for exploration of a novel application domain: on-body interaction for mobile computing. iSkin is the first investigation into this domain for the field of HCI, introducing e-skin into the recent stream of on-body interactions. Compared with temporary tattoos [14] or in the future possibly even implants [12], a skin overlay is easily attachable and detachable, which in our opinion is an important factor for its success as a consumer product.
Funding
  • This work has partially been funded by the Cluster of Excellence on Multimodal Computing and Interaction within the German Federal Excellence Initiative
Reference
  • Chan, L., Liang, R.-H., Tsai, M.-C., Cheng, K.-Y., Su, C.-H., Chen, M., Cheng, W.-H., and Chen, B.-Y. FingerPad: Private and Subtle Interaction Using Fingertips. In ACM UIST ’13 (2013).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Davison, B. Techniques for Robust Touch Sensing Design. http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/ AppNotes/00001334B.pdf. Accessed:2015-01-01.
    Findings
  • Dezfuli, N., Khalilbeigi, M., Huber, J., Muller, F., and Muhlhauser, M. PalmRC: Imaginary Palm-based Remote Control for Eyes-free Television Interaction. In EuroiTV ’12 (2012), 27.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Gong, N.-W., Steimle, J., Olberding, S., Hodges, S., Gillian, N. E., Kawahara, Y., and Paradiso, J. A. PrintSense: A Versatile Sensing Technique to Support Multimodal Flexible Surface Interaction. In ACM CHI ’14 (2014), 1407–1410.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Gong, N.-W., Zhao, N., and Paradiso, J. A. A Customizable Sensate Surface for Music Control. 417–420.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Gustafson, S. G., Rabe, B., and Baudisch, P. M. Understanding palm-based imaginary interfaces. In ACM CHI ’13 (2013), 889.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Hammock, M. L., Chortos, A., Tee, B. C.-K., Tok, J. B.-H., and Bao, Z. 25th Anniversary Article: The Evolution of Electronic Skin (E-Skin): A Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress. Advanced Materials 25, 42 (2013), 5997–6038.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Harrison, C., Benko, H., and Wilson, A. D. OmniTouch: Wearable Multitouch Interaction Everywhere. In ACM UIST ’11 (2011), 441.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Harrison, C., Ramamurthy, S., and Hudson, S. E. On-body Interaction: Armed and Dangerous. In ACM TEI ’12 (2012), 69.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Harrison, C., Tan, D., and Morris, D. Skinput: Appropriating the Body As an Input Surface. Communications of the ACM 54, 8 (2011), 111.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Hawkes, E., An, B., Benbernou, N. M., Tanaka, H., Kim, S., Demaine, E. D., Rus, D., and Wood, R. J. Programmable matter by folding. In PNAS 107, 28 (2010), 12441–12445.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Holz, C., Grossman, T., Fitzmaurice, G., and Agur, A. Implanted user interfaces. In ACM CHI ’12 (2012), 503.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Karrer, T., Wittenhagen, M., Lichtschlag, L., Heller, F., and Borchers, J. Pinstripe: Eyes-free Continuous Input Anywhere on Interactive Clothing. In ACM CHI ’11 (2011), 1313.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kim, D.-H., et al. Epidermal Electronics. Science 333, 6044 (2011), 838–843.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Kramer, R., Majidi, C., and Wood, R. Wearable tactile keypad with stretchable artificial skin. In IEEE ICRA ’11 (2011), 1103–1107.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Lissermann, R., Huber, J., Hadjakos, A., and Muhlhauser, M. EarPut: Augmenting Behind-the-ear Devices for Ear-based Interaction. In ACM CHI EA ’13 (2013), 1323–1328.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Lu, T., Finkenauer, L., Wissman, J., and Majidi, C. Rapid Prototyping for Soft-Matter Electronics. Advanced Functional Materials (2014).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Lumelsky, V. J., Shur, M., and Wagner, S. Sensitive skin. IEEE Sensors Journal (2001), 41–51.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • McCann, J., Hurford, R., and Martin, A. A Design Process for the Development of Innovative Smart Clothing That Addresses End-User Needs from Technical, Functional, Aesthetic and Cultural View Points. In IEEE ISWC ’05 (2005), 70–77.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Mistry, P., Maes, P., and Chang, L. WUW - wear Ur world. In ACM CHI EA ’09 (2009), 4111.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Nakatsuma, K., Shinoda, H., Makino, Y., Sato, K., and Maeno, T. Touch Interface on Back of the Hand. In ACM SIGGRAPH ’11 (2011).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Niu, X., Peng, S., Liu, L., Wen, W., and Sheng, P. Characterizing and Patterning of PDMS-Based Conducting Composites. Advanced Materials 19, 18 (2007), 2682–2686.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Ogata, M., Sugiura, Y., Makino, Y., Inami, M., and Imai, M. SenSkin: Adapting Skin as a Soft Interface. In ACM UIST ’13 (2013).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Ogata, M., Sugiura, Y., Osawa, H., and Imai, M. iRing: Intelligent Ring Using Infrared Reflection. In ACM UIST ’12 (2012), 131.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Olberding, S., Wessely, M., and Steimle, J. PrintScreen: Fabricating Highly Customizable Thin-film Touch-displays. In ACM UIST ’14 (2014), 281–290.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Olberding, S., Yeo, K. P., Nanayakkara, S., and Steimle, J. AugmentedForearm: Exploring the Design Space of a Display-enhanced Forearm. In AH ’13 (2013), 9–12.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Perrault, S. T., Lecolinet, E., Eagan, J., and Guiard, Y. Watchit: Simple gestures and eyes-free interaction for wristwatches and bracelets. In ACM CHI ’13 (2013), 1451–1460.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Rendl, C., Greindl, P., Haller, M., Zirkl, M., Stadlober, B., and Hartmann, P. PyzoFlex: Printed Piezoelectric Pressure Sensing Foil. In ACM UIST ’12 (2012), 509–518.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Rosenberg, I. D., Grau, A., Hendee, C., Awad, N., and Perlin, K. IMPAD: An Inexpensive Multi-touch pressure Acquisition Device. In ACM CHI EA ’09 (2009), 3217–3222.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Sekitani, T., Kaltenbrunner, M., Yokota, T., and Someya, T. Imperceptible Electronic Skin. SID Information Display 30, 1 (2014), 20–25.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Serrano, M., Ens, B. M., and Irani, P. P. Exploring the Use of Hand-To-Face Input for Interacting with Head-Worn Displays. In ACM CHI’14 (2014).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Someya, T. Stretchable Electronics. Wiley-VCH, 2013.
    Google ScholarFindings
  • Someya, T., Sekitani, T., Iba, S., Kato, Y., Kawaguchi, H., and Sakurai, T. A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications. In PNAS 101, 27 (2004), 9966–9970.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Su, C.-H., Chan, L., Weng, C.-T., Liang, R.-H., Cheng, K.-Y., and Chen, B.-Y. NailDisplay: Bringing an Always Available Visual Display to Fingertips. In ACM CHI ’13 (2013), 1461–1464.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Sugiura, Y., Inami, M., and Igarashi, T. A Thin Stretchable Interface for Tangential Force Measurement. In ACM UIST ’12 (2012), 529–536.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Tamaki, E., Miyak, T., and Rekimoto, J. BrainyHand:: A Wearable Computing Device Without HMD and It’s Interaction Techniques. In AVI ’10 (2010), 387–388.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Vega, K., and Fuks, H. Beauty Technology: Muscle Based Computing Interaction. In ACM ITS ’13 (2013), 469–474.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Wagner, J., Nancel, M., Gustafson, S. G., Huot, S., and Mackay, W. E. Body-centric design space for multi-surface interaction. In ACM CHI ’13 (2013), 1299.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Webb, R. C., Bonifas, A. P., Behnaz, A., Zhang, Y., Yu, K. J., Shi, H. C. M., Bian, Z., Liu, Z., Kim, Y.-S., Yeo, W.-H., Park, J. S., Song, J., Li, Y., Huang, Y., Gorbach, A. M., and Rogers, J. A. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin. Nature Materials 12 (2013), 938944.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Weigel, M., Mehta, V., and Steimle, J. More Than Touch: Understanding How People Use Skin As an Input Surface for Mobile Computing. In ACM CHI ’14 (2014), 179–188.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Windmiller, J. R., and Wang, J. Wearable Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review. In Electroanalysis (2013).
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
  • Woo, S.-J., Kong, J.-H., Kim, D.-G., and Kim, J.-M. A thin all-elastomeric capacitive pressure sensor array based on micro-contact printed elastic conductors. J. Mater. Chem. C 2 (2014), 4415–4422.
    Google ScholarLocate open access versionFindings
Your rating :
0

 

Best Paper
Best Paper of CHI, 2015
Tags
Comments